Natural convection of a non-Newtonian ferrofluid in a porous elliptical enclosure in the presence of a non-uniform magnetic field

  • M. R. Daneshvar Garmroodi
  • A. AhmadpourEmail author
  • M. R. Hajmohammadi
  • S. Gholamrezaie


In the present study, laminar natural convection of a non-Newtonian ferrofluid inside an elliptical porous cavity was numerically simulated in the presence of a non-uniform external magnetic field. This natural convection problem was relevant to the cooling of micro-sized electronic devices. The well-known finite volume method was employed to discretize the governing equations for ferrofluid flow under the effect of an external magnetic field. The effects of pertinent non-dimensional numbers including the Rayleigh number, the magnetic number, the power-law index, and the Darcy number were studied on the flow pattern and the heat transfer rate of the non-Newtonian ferrofluid. The results showed that by applying the magnetic field by a wire, the overall heat transfer rate increased significantly. Moreover, to achieve the maximum heat transfer enhancement, the wire should have been placed at the center of the elliptical walls of the enclosure. It was also shown that the impact of the power-law index on the heat transfer rate was considerable, and using a shear-thinning liquid increased the average Nusselt number in the porous elliptical enclosure.


Ferrofluid Porous media Non-Newtonian fluid Magnetic field Natural convection 

List of symbols


Large inner ellipse radius


Small inner ellipse radius


Magnetic induction


Consistency index (Nsn m−2)


Specific heat capacity (J kg−1 K−1)


Inertia coefficient of porous media


Outer ellipse radius


Darcy number


Rate of deformation tensor


Gravitational acceleration (ms−2)


Magnetic field vector (A m−1)


Electrical intensity (A)


Reference length (m)


Consistency index


Magnetic non-dimensional number


Power-law index


Nusselt number


Pressure (Pa)


Prandtl number


Rayleigh number


Velocity vector components (m s−1)

x, y

Cartesian coordinates (m)

Greek symbols


Thermal diffusivity (m2 s−1)


Non-dimensional temperature


Kinematic viscosity (m2 s−1)


Dynamic viscosity (kg m−1 s−1)


Magnetic permeability in a vacuum (= 4π × 10−7 T m A−1)


Magnetic susceptibility


Thermal expansion coefficient (1 K−1)


Density (kg m−3)


Solid volume fraction


Permeability of porous medium (m2)


Shear stress (Pa)




Thermal conductivity (W m−1 K−1)







Effective (porous media)


Base fluid




Mixture (nanofluid)






Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringAmirkabir University of TechnologyTehranIran

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