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Ambient air temperature and degree-day data analysis of the period 2006–2017 for Cyprus

  • Konstantinos T. PapakostasEmail author
  • Stavros Pavlou
  • Agis M. Papadopoulos
Article
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Abstract

Heating degree days (HDDs) and cooling degree days (CDDs) are widespread climatic indicators that depict the extremity and duration of ambient air temperature values. Over the years, they have been proven to be a useful tool for a reasonably accurate estimation of space heating and cooling requirements, as well as for the buildings’ energy performance rating and their compliance with legislative requirements. Reliable degree-days (DDs) data are a prerequisite for using the degree-day methods, so is determining the DDs values on a local and regional level, with respect to climate differentiations. The aim of this study is the calculation of HDDs and CDDs for Cyprus at various base temperatures, as such data cannot be found for Cyprus in the literature. The temperature data used were provided by the Cyprus Department of Meteorology, and these are the average daily dry-bulb ambient air temperature values as well as the daily maximum and minimum air temperature values for the period 2006–2017. Data were recorded at five meteorological stations at Paphos, Larnaca, Athalassa, Limassol and Prodromos. Monthly and annually HDDs and CDDs were calculated, for 11 base temperatures, as well as monthly and annually average temperatures for the period 2006–2017, by utilizing the DDs calculation technique of average daily temperature as proposed by ASHRAE. Additionally, an analysis of the variability and the trends of the HDDs and CDDs at the five meteorological stations during the 12-year period were performed. Finally, conclusions were drawn concerning the development of climate over the last 12 years in Cyprus.

Keywords

Heating degree days Cooling degree days Steady-state energy methods Energy demands in buildings Temperature data Cyprus 

List of symbols

\(\theta_{\text{bal}}\)

Balance point temperature, °C

\(\theta_{\text{i}}\)

Indoor design air temperature, °C

\(\theta_{\text{o}}\)

Outdoor air temperature, °C

\(\theta_{\text{av,j}}\)

Daily average air temperature, °C

\(\theta_{\text{o,max}}\)

Daily maximum outdoor air temperature, °C

\(\theta_{\text{o,min}}\)

Daily minimum outdoor air temperature, °C

\(H\)

The total heat-loss coefficient of a building, WK−1

\(\dot{q}_{\text{gain}}\)

Heat gains from occupants, lights, equipment and sun, W

Abbreviations

ASHRAE

American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers

\({\text{DDs}}\)

Degree days, °C-day

\({\text{CDD}}_{\text{mon}}\)

Monthly cooling degree days, °C-day

\({\text{HDD}}_{\text{mon}}\)

Monthly heating degree days, °C-day

HVAC

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning

NZEBs

Nearly zero energy buildings

UKMO

United Kingdom Met Office

Notes

Acknowledgements

The paper has not been published or is submitted to another journal for the consideration of publication. Furthermore, this research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessaloníkiGreece

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