Thermodynamic analysis of two air conditioning systems with ice thermal storage in Egypt

  • Mohamed Elhelw
  • Wael M. El-MaghlanyEmail author


An evaluation of using a thermal storage system utilized with air conditioning cycle in Egypt is the main aim of this paper. This study includes the addition of an energy storage system to two types of air conditioning systems: an all-air (AHU) and an all-water (FCU) air conditioning system. The exergy analysis is based on the transient analysis for a conventional cycle and a proposed ice storage cycle for the administration (FCU) and control (AHU) buildings in the New Abu-Qir Thermal Power Plant in Alexandria, Egypt, and it is presented as a case study. Results revealed that a significant increase in the system COP can be observed. The proposed ice storage cycles accomplish a 2.784 average coefficient of performance for the administration building and a 2.811 for control building, whereas the conventional system’s COP is 2.593 and 2.617 for both buildings, respectively. The ice storage tank can supply cooling for 8 h for the administration and control buildings. As a result, the ice storage systems save 53,517 kW h year−1 (6.88% power saving) for the administration building and 55,716 kW h year−1 (6.89% power saving) for the control building in 360 working days within the year (8640 h).


Ice thermal storage Exergy analysis Exergy destruction Power saving Air conditioning 

List of symbols


Specific heat at constant volume, kJ kg−1 °C−1


Enthalpy, kJ kg−1


Mass, kg


Mass flow rate, kg s−1


Heat transfer rate, kW


Entropy, kJ kg−1 °C−1


Time, s


Temperature,  °C


Latent heat of fusion, kJ kg−1


Power, kW



Refrigerant point leaving evaporator and entering compressor


Refrigerant point leaving compressor and entering condenser


Refrigerant point leaving condenser and entering expansion valve


Refrigerant point leaving expansion valve and entering evaporator


Water point exit from heat exchanger


Water point entering heat exchanger


Refrigerant point leaving evaporator and entering compressor in ice storage system


Refrigerant point leaving compressor and entering condenser in ice storage system


Refrigerant point leaving condenser and entering expansion valve in ice storage system


Refrigerant point leaving expansion valve and entering evaporator in ice storage system








Coefficient of operation






Expansion valve


Heat exchanger










United nations





This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or no-profit sectors.


  1. 1.
    Rosen MA, Dincer I. Exergy methods for assessing and comparing thermal storage systems. Int J Energy Res. 2003;27:415–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rosen MA, Tang R, Dincer I. Effect of stratification on energy and exergy capacities in thermal storage systems. Int J Energy Res. 2004;28:177–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jack MW, Wrobel J. Thermodynamic optimization of a stratified thermal storage device. Appl Therm Eng. 2009;29:2344–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fertelli A, Yılmaz T, Büyükalaca O. Ice formation around a horizontal tube in a rectangular vessel. J Therm Sci Technol. 2009;29:75–87.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lin H, Li X, Cheng P, Xu B. Study on chilled energy storage of air-conditioning system with energy saving. Energy Build. 2014;79:41–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sanaye S, Shirazi A. Thermo-economic optimization of an ice thermal energy storage system for air-conditioning applications. Energy Build. 2013;60:100–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Han YM, Wang RZ, Dai YJ. Thermal stratification within the water tank. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2009;13:1014–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Feldman D, Shapiro F. Acids and their mixtures as phase-change materials for thermal energy storage. Solar Energy Mater. 1989;18:201–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chen SL, Jwo CS, Yang BS, Yen JY. Theoretical and experimental investigations of a packed ice-storage air conditioning system. J Chin Soc Mech Eng. 1997;18:445–56.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Habeebullah BA. Economic feasibility of thermal energy storage systems: application to Al-Haram Grand Holy Mosque air conditioning plant. JKAU Eng Sci. 2006;16:55–82.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fang G, Xing L, Yang F, Li H. Exergy analysis of a dual-mode refrigeration system for ice storage air conditioning. Int J Archit Sci. 2005;6:1–6.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rismanchi B, Saidur R, Masjuki HH, Mahlia TMI. Energetic, economic and environmental benefits of utilizing the ice thermal storage systems for office building applications. Energy Build. 2012;347:50–4.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    XiaoXia S, Dong W. The research on the load prediction for ice storage system based on rough set. Int J Smart Home. 2015;9:117–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    MacPhee D, Dincer I. Performance assessment of some ice TES systems. Int J Therm Sci. 2009;48:2288–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Upshaw CR, Rhodes JD, Webber ME. Modeling peak load reduction and energy consumption enabled by an integrated thermal energy and water storage system for residential air conditioning systems in Austin, Texas. Energy Build. 2015;97:21–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sehar F, Rahman S, Pipattanasomporn M. Impacts of ice storage on electrical energy consumptions in office buildings. Energy Build. 2012;51:255–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Song X, Zhu T, Liu L, Cao Z. Study on optimal ice storage capacity of ice thermal storage system and its influence factors. Energy Convers Manag. 2018;164:288–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rismanchi B, Saidur R, Masjuki HH, Mahlia TMI. Thermodynamic evaluation of utilizing different ice thermal energy storage systems for cooling application in office buildings in Malaysia. Energy Build. 2012;53:117–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Du Y, Gai W, Jin L, Sheng W. Thermal comfort model analysis and optimization performance evaluation of a multifunctional ice storage air conditioning system in a confined mine refuge chamber. Energy. 2017;141:964–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kang Z, Wang R, Zhou X, Feng G. Research status of ice-storage air-conditioning system. Procedia Eng. 2017;205:1741–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Xu Y, Li M, Luo X, Ma X, Wang Y, Li G, Hassanien R. Experimental investigation of solar photovoltaic operated ice thermal storage air-conditioning system. Int J Refrig. 2018;86:258–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chen H, Wang D, Chen S. Optimization of an ice-storage air conditioning system using dynamic programming method. Appl Therm Eng. 2005;25:461–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fang G, Liu X. Exergy analysis of ice storage air-conditioning system with heat pipe during charging period. Energy Sustain Dev. 2010;14:149–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shaibani A, Keshtkar M, Sardari M. Thermo-economic analysis of a cold storage system in full and partial modes with two different scenarios: a case study. J Energy Storage. 2019;24: Article 100783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mehrjerdi H, Rakhshani E. Optimal operation of hybrid electrical and thermal energy storage systems under uncertain loading condition. Appl Therm Eng. 2019;160: Article 114094.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhao Y, Zhang X, Xu X. Application and research progress of cold storage technology in cold. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019. Scholar
  27. 27.
    Elhelw M. Analysis of energy management for heating ventilating and air-conditioning systems. Alex Eng J. 2016;55:811–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Beemkumar N, Yuvarajan D, Karthikeyan A, Ganesan S. Comparative experimental study on parabolic trough collector integrated with thermal energy storage system by using different reflective materials. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;137:941–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    NASA visible earth. Accessed Jan 2019
  30. 30.
    Yuan X, O’Neal D L. Development of a transient simulation model of a freezer part I: model development. In: International refrigeration and air conditioning conference, Paper 250; 1994.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Engineering Equation Solver Program. S.A Klein professional version 9.430, Samsung Electronic Co. Living Systems R&D Center Suwon Kyungki-Do, Korea; 2013.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Xu YF, Li M, Luo X, Wang YF, Yu QF, Hassaniem RH. Performance analysis of ice storage air conditioning system driven by distributed photovoltaic energy. Bulg Chem Commun. 2016;48:165–72.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringAlexandria UniversityAlexandriaEgypt

Personalised recommendations