Mechanochemical synthesis, characterization and thermal study of new cocrystals of ciprofloxacin with pyrazinoic acid and p-aminobenzoic acid

  • Amanda Cosmo de Almeida
  • Patrícia Osório Ferreira
  • Carolina Torquetti
  • Bruno Ekawa
  • Ana Carina Sobral Carvalho
  • Everton Carvalho dos Santos
  • Flávio Junior CairesEmail author


Novel cocrystals of ciprofloxacin with pyrazinoic acid and p-aminobenzoic acid in the 1:1 stoichiometric ratio were obtained by the mechanochemical method, under conditions of liquid-assisted grinding (LAG/ethanol) and neat grinding. They were characterized by powder X-ray diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy, simultaneous thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and DSC-Microscopy system. The results confirmed the successful synthesis of the cocrystals and indicated the functional groups responsible for the formation of the new supramolecular synthons. In addition, from the thermal analysis, it was possible to evaluate the thermal stability, composition, crystallization processes during heating, polymorphic transitions and construct the binary phase diagrams.


Cocrystal Ciprofloxacin Mechanochemical synthesis Thermal analysis 



The authors thank CPID/CDMF, FAPESP (grant Nos. 2013/09022-7, 2017/14936-9, 2018/12463-9 and 2018/24378-6), CNPq (grant No. 141829/2017-6) and CAPES (grant No. 001) foundations (Brazil) for financial support.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 3508 kb)

Supplementary material 2 (MP4 165945 kb)


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amanda Cosmo de Almeida
    • 1
  • Patrícia Osório Ferreira
    • 1
  • Carolina Torquetti
    • 2
  • Bruno Ekawa
    • 1
  • Ana Carina Sobral Carvalho
    • 1
  • Everton Carvalho dos Santos
    • 2
  • Flávio Junior Caires
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of ChemistrySão Paulo State University (UNESP)AraraquaraBrazil
  2. 2.School of SciencesSão Paulo State University (UNESP)BauruBrazil

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