Emission and performance analysis of DI diesel engines fueled by biodiesel blends via CFD simulation of spray combustion and different spray breakup models: a numerical study

  • Abbas Zarenezhad AshkezariEmail author
  • Kambiz Divsalar
  • Rahim Malmir
  • Iman Abbaspour


In the current study, computational fluid dynamics code was used to perform 3D simulation of mixture formation and combustion of biodiesel fuel spray in a direct injection diesel engine. Thus, the spray atomization and combustion processes were simulated by applying the improved version of KH–RT spray breakup model coupled with advanced ECFM-3Z model for combustion. To this aim, experimental results were used first to validate the calculated values of NOx, soot, heat release rate, and in-cylinder pressure and good agreement was obtained. To develop the engine performance and reduce the emission, various models of spray breakup of biodiesel fuel were simulated, and the optimum spray breakup model was specified. Also, the accuracy of each model was determined in comparison with the experimental results. The results show that the TAB breakup model has not provided acceptable results for spray characteristics compared to the other models. Since the simulation results of in-cylinder pressure and emissions were consistent with the experimental results by the KHRT model, it could be concluded that this model has correctly predicted the size of droplets produced by spray fragmentation and penetration, and it could be used to simulate the atomization of biodiesel fuel spray under different engine conditions by adjusting the model constants.


Spray Breakup Biodiesel Combustion Diesel engine CFD 



Direct injection


Heavy duty


Nitrogen oxides


Carbon monoxide




Brake-specific fuel consumption


Inlet valve closing


Inlet valve opening


Exhaust valve opening


Crank angle


Top dead center


Bottom dead center


After bottom dead center


Before bottom dead center


After top dead center


Before top dead center


Heat release rate


Spark ignition


Air/fuel ratio


Computational fluid dynamics


Compression ignition


Brake thermal efficiency


Revolution per minute


Methyl butanoate


Discrete droplet method


Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory


Kelvin–Helmholtz and Rayleigh–Taylor



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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringImam Khomeini Maritime University of NowshahrNowshahrIran
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringBabol Noshirvani University of TechnologyBabolIran
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIslamic Azad University Sari BranchSariIran

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