Experimental analyses on heat transfer performance of TiO2–water nanofluid in double-pipe counter-flow heat exchanger for various flow regimes

  • R. SubramanianEmail author
  • A. Senthil Kumar
  • K. Vinayagar
  • C. Muthusamy


Nanofluids are widely used in heat transfer applications. This article presents the effect of heat transfer and pressure drop of the TiO2–water nanofluids flowing in a double-tube counter-flow heat exchanger with various flow patterns. In this experimental work, performance of TiO2–water nanofluid on heat transfer in three different cases such as laminar, transition and turbulent flow region were analyzed. TiO2 nanoparticles with average diameters of 20 nm dispersed in water with three volume concentrations of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 vol% were used as the test fluid. The results show that the heat transfer of nanofluids is higher than that of the base liquid (water) and increased with the increase in Reynolds number and particle concentrations. The heat transfer rate of nanofluid with 0.5 vol% was 25% greater than that of base liquid, and the results also show that the heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluids at a volume concentration of 0.5 vol% was 15% higher than that of base fluid at given conditions. Pressure drop of nanofluid was increased with increase in volume concentration, and it is slightly higher than that of the base fluid.


Nanoparticle Nusselt number Pressure drop TiO2–water nanofluid Turbulent flow 

List of symbols


Cross-sectional area (m2)


Specific heat (kJ kg−1 K−1)


Internal diameter of the tube (m)


Thermal conductivity (W m−1 K−1)


Temperature (K)


Mass flow rate (kg s−1)


Heat transfer rate (W)


Average Nusselt number


Heat transfer coefficient (W m−1 K−1)


Reynolds number


Nusselt number


Acceleration dew to gravity (m s−2)


Difference of pressure head (m)


Friction factor


Length of the heat exchanger (m)


Density of nanofluid (kg m−3)


Density of base fluid (kg m−3)


Density of nanoparticle (kg m−3)


Specific heat of nanofluid (kJ kg−1 K−1)


Specific heat of base fluid (kJ kg−1 K−1)


Specific heat of nanoparticle (kJ kg−1 K−1)


Thermal conductivity of nanofluid (W m−1 K−1)


Thermal conductivity of nanoparticle (W m−1 K−1)


Thermal conductivity of base fluid (W m−1 K−1)


Dynamic viscosity of nanofluid (kg m−1 s−1)


Dynamic viscosity of base fluid (kg m−1 s−1)


Heat transfer of cold fluid (kW)


Heat transfer of hot fluid (kW)


Heat transfer of base fluid (kW)


Heat transfer of nanofluid (kW)


Average heat transfer of base fluid and nanofluid (kW)


Temperature of cold fluid inlet (K)


Temperature of hot fluid inlet (K)


Temperature of cold fluid outlet (K)


Temperature of hot fluid outlet (K)


Convective heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid (kW m−2 K−1)


Density of carbon tetra chloride (Kg m−3)

Greek letters


Dynamic viscosity (kg m−1 s−1)


Volume concentration of nanofluid (%)


Density (kg m−3)


Pressure drop (N m−2)



Inner tube or inlet


Cold fluid


Hot water


Base fluid







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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Subramanian
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. Senthil Kumar
    • 1
  • K. Vinayagar
    • 1
  • C. Muthusamy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSethu Institute of TechnologyPulloor, KariapattiIndia

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