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Experimental investigation on the thermal performance and new correlation for thermal conductivity of aqueous copper oxide-doped MCM-41 nanofluids

  • Fatemeh Mansour Kiaee
  • Zohreh BahramiEmail author
  • Faramarz Hormozi
Article
  • 7 Downloads

Abstract

In the present study, the pure MCM-41- and CuO-doped MCM-41 nanoparticles with various mass fractions of CuO were synthesized and used for the preparation of water-based nanofluids. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized using small-angle X-ray scattering, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and N2 adsorption/desorption analysis. The thermal conductivity of the water-based nanofluids with various mass fractions of nanoparticles including 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mass% was measured by KD2-Pro thermal analyzer. A new correlation is developed for the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid with a reasonably good accuracy (± 5%) when comparing to the experimental data. The thermal performance of these nanofluids together with hydraulic features such as friction factor and heat transfer coefficient was investigated using a mini-channel heat exchanger. The obtained results revealed that the thermal conductivity can be enhanced by 13.1% which belonged to the nanofluid with 1 mass% of CuO-doped MCM-41 nanoparticles. The maximum heat transfer coefficient enhancement was 31% and belonged to the nanofluid containing 50% CuO@MCM-41 nanoparticles at 0.5 mass%. The performance evaluation criterion (PEC) of the various nanofluids was also calculated, and it was identified that the nanoparticles with 50% CuO@MCM-41 dispersed in water have the largest PEC, 16.7% over the base fluid. The friction factor increases by adding the nanoparticles to the pure water. For example, at Re = 1200, the friction factor increases about 36.84% by using the 50%CuO@MCM-41 nanoparticles with 0.5 mass% as compared with the pure water. The friction factor decreases with increasing the Reynolds number. For example, for 50%CuO@MCM-41 and 0.5 mass%, the friction factor decreases up to 34.17% as the Reynolds number increases in the range of 400–1200.

Keywords

Water-based nanofluid MCM-41 CuO nanoparticles Thermal conductivity Stability 

List of symbols

a

Effective cross-sectional area of one adsorbate molecule, in square meters, 0.162 nm2 for nitrogen

At

Total heat transfer area, m2

C

Dimensionless constant related to enthalpy of adsorption of adsorbate gas on powder sample

Cp

Specific heat capacity, J kg−1 K−1

Dh

Hydraulic diameter, m

\( f \)

Darcy friction factor

H

Heat transfer coefficient, W m−2 K−1

Hc

Height of channel, m

I

Current, A

K

Thermal conductivity, W m−1 K−1

Lc

Length of channel

m

Mass of test powder, g

\( \dot{m} \)

Mass flow rate, kg s−1

N

Avogadro constant, 6.022 × 1023 mol−1

Nu

Nusselt number

ΔP

Pressure drop, Pa

P

Partial vapor pressure of adsorbate gas in equilibrium with the surface at 77 K (b.p. of liquid nitrogen), Pa

P0

Saturated pressure of adsorbate gas, Pa

PEC

Performance evaluation criterion

Q

Heat, W

Re

Reynolds number

T

Temperature, K

U

Velocity, m s−1

V

Voltage, V

Va

Volume of gas adsorbed at standard temperature and pressure (273.15 K and 1.013 × 105 Pa), mL

Vm

Volume of gas adsorbed at standard temperature and pressure to produce an apparent monolayer on sample surface, mL

Wc

Width of channel, m

Subscripts

avg

Average

B

Balk

Bf

Base fluid

F

Fluid

in

Inlet

nf

Nanofluid

out

Outlet

P

Nanoparticle

w

Wall

Greek symbols

ρ

Density, kg m−3

µ

Viscosity, kg m−1 s−1

φ

Volume fraction of particle

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would appreciate Semnan University for the financial supports.

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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of NanotechnologySemnan UniversitySemnanIran
  2. 2.Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum, and Gas EngineeringSemnan UniversitySemnanIran

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