Numerical evaluation of the effect of geometrical and operational parameters on thermal performance of nanofluid flow in convergent–divergent tube

  • Farzam Akbarzadeh Hamedani
  • Seyed Soheil Mousavi AjarostaghiEmail author
  • Seyed Amin Hosseini


Generally, there are two main methods to increase the thermal performance of the heat exchanger, which include active and passive methods. Passive mode, unlike active mode, does not need external power which the heat transfer rate can be increased by utilizing changes in the flow regime or direction of the fluid path. In the present survey, numerical analysis of the effect of geometrical and operational parameters on the thermal performance of a convergent–divergent tube is done. Numerical simulations are performed using the commercial CFD code. The investigated geometrical parameters include the large and smaller diameters of the cone’s wall, the pitch of the cone and the height of the roughness. Obtained results in the first section indicate that the proposed wavy geometry leads to enhanced heat transfer in the pipe. In the second section of the study, instead of pure water, two types of water-based nanofluids, including water/Al2O3 and water/CuO, are utilized, and the obtained results are compared with pure water. Results indicate that water/Al2O3 nanofluid has better thermal performance than CuO/water and especially pure water. As a result, it can be said that for water/Al2O3 nanofluid at low Reynolds number (Re = 10,000), the case with φ = 4% has 9.29% more thermal performance than pure water which has the highest thermal performance. Also, at high Reynolds number (Re = 20,000), the case with φ = 5% has 7.15% more thermal performance than pure water. The lowest thermal performance improvement in comparison with pure water belongs to the case with φ = 2% at high Reynolds number (Re = 20,000) with about 6%. Also, for water/CuO nanofluid, the case with φ = 3% at low Reynolds number (Re = 10,000) and the case with φ = 5% at high Reynolds number (Re = 20,000) have highest and lowest thermal performance improvement in comparison with pure water with 8.86% and 6.25%, respectively.


Numerical simulation Convergent–divergent tube Heat transfer enhancement Nanofluid Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) 



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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Farzam Akbarzadeh Hamedani
    • 1
  • Seyed Soheil Mousavi Ajarostaghi
    • 2
    Email author
  • Seyed Amin Hosseini
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringChabahar Maritime and Marine UniversityChabaharIran
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringBabol Noshirvani University of TechnologyBabolIran

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