The effect of inlet temperature on the irreversibility characteristics of non-Newtonian hybrid nano-fluid flow inside a minichannel counter-current hairpin heat exchanger

  • Yulin Ma
  • Majid Jafari
  • Azeez A. Barzinjy
  • B. Mahmoudi
  • Samir M. Hamad
  • Masoud AfrandEmail author


The goal of this work is to examine the influence of entering temperature on the entropy generation characteristics of a minichannel hairpin heat exchanger with counter-flow configuration. The working fluids are water and hybrid water–Fe3O4/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) nano-fluid (NF) that flows through the annulus side and tube side of the heat exchanger, respectively. It is assumed that the NF is non-Newtonian, and its thermal conductivity and viscosity are temperature dependent. The impact of volume fraction of Fe3O4 (\(\varphi_{\text{FF}}\)) and CNT nanoadditives (\(\varphi_{\text{CNT}}\)) as well as the Reynolds number of NF (\(Re_{\text{nf}}\)) on the Bejan number and irreversibilities due to heat transfer and fluid friction are also assessed. It was found that augmenting the temperature difference between the fluids entering the heat exchanger results in a decrease in the frictional irreversibility and an increase in the global thermal and total irreversibilities and global Bejan number. Additionally, the outcomes depicted that the global frictional and total irreversibilities and the global Bejan number intensify by boosting the \(Re_{\text{nf}}\) and \(\varphi_{\text{CNT}}\), while the increase of \(\varphi_{\text{FF}}\) first leads to the reduction and then the increase of these parameters.


Hybrid nano-fluid Hairpin heat exchanger Inlet temperature Irreversibility Carbon nanotube Fe3O4 

List of symbols


Bejan number


Specific heat (J kg−1 K−1)


Inner diameter (m)


Outer diameter (m)


Thermal conductivity (W m−1 K−1)


Pressure (Pa)


Reynolds number


Local frictional entropy generation rate (W m−3 K−1)


Local thermal entropy generation rate (W m−3 K−1)


Local total entropy generation rate (W m−3 K−1)


Global frictional entropy generation rate (W m−3 K−1)


Global thermal entropy generation rate (W m−3 K−1)


Global total entropy generation rate (W m−3 K−1)


Temperature (K)


Inlet velocity (m s−1)


Velocity (m s−1)

Greek symbols


Shear rate (s−1)


Viscosity (kg m−1 s−1)


Density (kg m−3)








This work is partially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFB0100903) and JITRI Suzhou Automotive Research Institute Project (CEC20190404).


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Electromechanical and Automobile EngineeringHuanggang Normal UniversityHuanggangP.R. China
  2. 2.Suzhou Automotive Research InstituteTsinghua UniversitySuzhouChina
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringKermanshah University of TechnologyKermanshahIran
  4. 4.Physics Education DepartmentTishk International University TIUErbil, Kurdistan RegionIraq
  5. 5.Physics Department, College of EducationSalahaddin University-ErbilKurdistan RegionIraq
  6. 6.Computer DepartmentCihan University-ErbilErbilIraq
  7. 7.Scientific Research CentreSoran UniversitySoran, Kurdistan RegionIraq
  8. 8.Laboratory of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Advanced Institute of Materials ScienceTon Duc Thang UniversityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam
  9. 9.Faculty of Applied SciencesTon Duc Thang UniversityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam

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