Pumping power and heat transfer efficiency evaluation on Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2 single and hybrid water-based nanofluids for energy application

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Nanofluids are new heat transfer fluids obtained by suspending different nanoparticles in a base fluid. This research deals with a complex numerical study on nanofluids heat transfer efficiency and pumping power for a certain fluid mechanics application. For this research, several oxide-based nanofluids and hybrid nanofluids were implemented in a numerical code, in both laminar and turbulent flow, while the thermophysical properties were experimentally evaluated and thus, single phase model was considered as the best option. Results showed an increase in heat transfer efficiency of all nanofluids when the nanoparticles are added to suspensions. On the other hand, the numerical results on pumping power and pressure drop were compared with several theoretical correlations and results are discussed accordingly. As a general outcome, it may affirm that the study of these new heat transfer fluids is mandatory to be accomplished taking into account both the heat transfer augmentation and pumping power. If it correlates data from this study one can say that the best flow behavior can be attained when replacing water with Al2O3–SiO2 hybrid nanofluids. Plus, a new coefficient for estimation of nanofluids behavior in solar applications is proposed.

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\(\dot{v}\) :

Volume flow rate

\({\bar{t^{\prime}}}\) :

Fluctuations in temperature

\({\bar{u^{\prime}}}\) :

Fluctuations in velocity

\({\bar{P}}\) :

Time-averaged flow variable

\({\bar{T}}\) :

Time-averaged temperature

\({\bar{v}}\) :

Time-averaged velocity

c p :

Isobaric specific heat


Computational fluid dynamics

D :

Hydraulic diameter

f :

Friction factor

G :

Generation of turbulent kinetic energy due to mean velocity gradients

h :

Heat transfer coefficient

k :

Thermal conductivity

L :

Channel length


Nanofluid efficiency coefficient


Nusselt number


Performance evaluation criteria


Prandtl number

q :

Wall heat flux

r :


R :

Ray, R = D/2


Reynolds number

T :


v :

Axial velocity

V :

Volume fraction of nanocomponent


Refers to volume concentration

w :

Fluid velocity

W :

Pumping power


Pressure drop


Rate of dissipation


Volume fraction of particles


Turbulent kinetic energy




Effective Prandtl numbers


Fluid dynamic viscosity


Refers to base fluid


Refers to hybrid nanofluid property


Refers to nanofluid property


Refers to a mean value


Refers to a mean value on exit


Refers to “nanofluid/base fluid” ratio




Refers to rate of dissipation


Refers to turbulent kinetic energy


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Correspondence to Alina Adriana Minea.

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Minea, A.A. Pumping power and heat transfer efficiency evaluation on Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2 single and hybrid water-based nanofluids for energy application. J Therm Anal Calorim 139, 1171–1181 (2020).

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  • Heat transfer
  • Hybrid nanofluids
  • Solar energy
  • Pumping power
  • Convection