Advertisement

Characterization of the nanoparticles, the stability analysis and the evaluation of a new hybrid nano-oil thermal conductivity

  • Yuancheng Geng
  • Abdullah A. A. A. Al-Rashed
  • Boshra Mahmoudi
  • Ali Sulaiman Alsagri
  • Amin Shahsavar
  • Pouyan TalebizadehsardariEmail author
Article
  • 22 Downloads

Abstract

The present study aims at nanoparticles characterization and stability as well as the thermal conductivity of the hybrid nano-oil of ZnO–MWCNT/oil at the temperature range from 25 to 65 °C and the concentrations range from 0.50 to 3.2% for the solid particles. First, the nanoparticles of MWCNT and ZnO were characterized using XRD-FESEM and FTIR tests, and according to the results, the analysis of atomic, surface and chemical structure of nanoparticles was made. The nanolubricant was prepared by a two-step method. For this purpose, firstly, the stability was analyzed by the DLS test and the results show that the nanoparticles are in nanoscale after the construction of nano-oil. The thermal conductivity was measured based on the variables of temperature and volume fraction. An increasing trend was observed for the thermal conductivity for higher temperature and volume fraction of the nanoparticles. The biggest improvement of the thermal conductivity compared to the base fluid is at 65 °C, the volume fraction is 3.2%, and its value is 35.1%. Moreover, a very accurate experimental relationship was developed to determine the ratio of the thermal conductivity of nano-oil in the empirical range.

Keywords

Hybrid nano-oil Experimental analysis Characterization Stability Thermal conductivity Empirical correlation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research is partially supported by Youth Education Research Program of Fujian (JAT170932).

References

  1. 1.
    Ahmadi Nadooshan A, Hemmat Esfe M, Afrand M. Prediction of rheological behavior of SiO2-MWCNTs/10W40 hybrid nanolubricant by designing neural network. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018;131(3):2741–8.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-017-6688-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Goodarzi M, Toghraie D, Reiszadeh M, Afrand M. Experimental evaluation of dynamic viscosity of ZnO–MWCNTs/engine oil hybrid nanolubricant based on changes in temperature and concentration. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;136(2):513–25.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-018-7707-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sepyani K, Afrand M, Esfe MH. An experimental evaluation of the effect of ZnO nanoparticles on the rheological behavior of engine oil. J Mol Liq. 2017;236:198–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Asadi A, Asadi M, Rezaniakolaei A, Rosendahl LA, Afrand M, Wongwises S. Heat transfer efficiency of Al2O3-MWCNT/thermal oil hybrid nanofluid as a cooling fluid in thermal and energy management applications: an experimental and theoretical investigation. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2018;117:474–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Esfe MH, Bahiraei M, Hajmohammad MH, Afrand M. Rheological characteristics of MgO/oil nanolubricants: experimental study and neural network modeling. Int Commun Heat Mass. 2017;86:245–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nadooshan AA, Esfe MH, Afrand M. Evaluation of rheological behavior of 10W40 lubricant containing hybrid nano-material by measuring dynamic viscosity. Phys E. 2017;92:47–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Eshgarf H, Sina N, Esfe MH, Izadi F, Afrand M. Prediction of rheological behavior of MWCNTs–SiO2/EG–water non-Newtonian hybrid nanofluid by designing new correlations and optimal artificial neural networks. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018;132(2):1029–38.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-017-6895-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shahsavani E, Afrand M, Kalbasi R. Experimental study on rheological behavior of water–ethylene glycol mixture in the presence of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018;131(2):1177–85.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-017-6711-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Alsarraf J, Rahmani R, Shahsavar A, Afrand M, Wongwises S, Tran MD. Effect of magnetic field on laminar forced convective heat transfer of MWCNT–Fe3O4/water hybrid nanofluid in a heated tube. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-08078-y.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hajatzadeh Pordanjani A, Aghakhani S, Karimipour A, Afrand M, Goodarzi M. Investigation of free convection heat transfer and entropy generation of nanofluid flow inside a cavity affected by magnetic field and thermal radiation. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-018-7982-4.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vahedi SM, Pordanjani AH, Wongwises S, Afrand M. On the role of enclosure side walls thickness and heater geometry in heat transfer enhancement of water–Al2O3 nanofluid in presence of a magnetic field. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-08224-6.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Afrand M, Esfe MH, Abedini E, Teimouri H. Predicting the effects of magnesium oxide nanoparticles and temperature on the thermal conductivity of water using artificial neural network and experimental data. Phys E. 2017;87:242–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dehkordi RA, Esfe MH, Afrand M. Effects of functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes on thermal performance of antifreeze: an experimental study on thermal conductivity. Appl Therm Eng. 2017;120:358–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Esfahani NN, Toghraie D, Afrand M. A new correlation for predicting the thermal conductivity of ZnO–Ag (50%–50%)/water hybrid nanofluid: an experimental study. Powder Technol. 2018;323:367–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Esfe MH, Motahari K, Sanatizadeh E, Afrand M, Rostamian H, Ahangar MRH. Estimation of thermal conductivity of CNTs-water in low temperature by artificial neural network and correlation. Int Commun Heat Mass. 2016;76:376–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nadooshan AA, Eshgarf H, Afrand M. Measuring the viscosity of Fe3O4-MWCNTs/EG hybrid nanofluid for evaluation of thermal efficiency: Newtonian and non-Newtonian behavior. J Mol Liq. 2018;253:169–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shahsavani E, Afrand M, Kalbasi R. Using experimental data to estimate the heat transfer and pressure drop of non-Newtonian nanofluid flow through a circular tube: applicable for use in heat exchangers. Appl Therm Eng. 2018;129:1573–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Choi SU, Eastman JA. Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles: Argonne National Lab., IL (United States) 1995.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cheraghian G, Wu Q, Mostofi M, Li M-C, Afrand M, Sangwai JS. Effect of a novel clay/silica nanocomposite on water-based drilling fluids: improvements in rheological and filtration properties. Colloids Surf, A. 2018;555:339–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Karimi A, Al-Rashed AA, Afrand M, Mahian O, Wongwises S, Shahsavar A. The effects of tape insert material on the flow and heat transfer in a nanofluid-based double tube heat exchanger: two-phase mixture model. Int J Mech Sci. 2019;156:397–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Afrand M. Experimental study on thermal conductivity of ethylene glycol containing hybrid nano-additives and development of a new correlation. Appl Therm Eng. 2017;110:1111–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Afrand M, Karimipour A, Nadooshan AA, Akbari M. The variations of heat transfer and slip velocity of FMWNT-water nano-fluid along the micro-channel in the lack and presence of a magnetic field. Physica E. 2016;84:474–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Afrand M, Najafabadi KN, Akbari M. Effects of temperature and solid volume fraction on viscosity of SiO2-MWCNTs/SAE40 hybrid nanofluid as a coolant and lubricant in heat engines. Appl Therm Eng. 2016;102:45–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dardan E, Afrand M, Isfahani AM. Effect of suspending hybrid nano-additives on rheological behavior of engine oil and pumping power. Appl Therm Eng. 2016;109:524–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Maxwell JC. A treatise on electricity and magnetism. Clarendon. Oxford. 1881;314:1873.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Eastman JA, Choi S, Li S, Yu W, Thompson L. Anomalously increased effective thermal conductivities of ethylene glycol-based nanofluids containing copper nanoparticles. Appl Phys Lett. 2001;78(6):718–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Aberoumand S, Jafarimoghaddam A. Experimental study on synthesis, stability, thermal conductivity and viscosity of Cu–engine oil nanofluid. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng. 2017;71:315–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Aberoumand S, Jafarimoghaddam A, Moravej M, Aberoumand H, Javaherdeh K. Experimental study on the rheological behavior of silver-heat transfer oil nanofluid and suggesting two empirical based correlations for thermal conductivity and viscosity of oil based nanofluids. Appl Therm Eng. 2016;101:362–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ku B-C, Han Y-C, Lee J-E, Lee J-K, Park S-H, Hwang Y-J. Tribological effects of fullerene (C 60) nanoparticles added in mineral lubricants according to its viscosity. Int J Precis Eng Manuf. 2010;11(4):607–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ilyas SU, Pendyala R, Narahari M, Susin L. Stability, rheology and thermal analysis of functionalized alumina-thermal oil-based nanofluids for advanced cooling systems. Energy Convers Manag. 2017;142:215–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Devendiran DK, Amirtham VA. A review on preparation, characterization, properties and applications of nanofluids. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2016;60:21–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ranjbarzadeh R, Isfahani AM, Afrand M, Karimipour A, Hojaji M. An experimental study on heat transfer and pressure drop of water/graphene oxide nanofluid in a copper tube under air cross-flow: applicable as a heat exchanger. Appl Therm Eng. 2017;125:69–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sharif M, Azmi W, Redhwan A, Mamat R. Investigation of thermal conductivity and viscosity of Al2O3/PAG nanolubricant for application in automotive air conditioning system. Int J Refrig. 2016;70:93–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Koca HD, Doganay S, Turgut A, Tavman IH, Saidur R, Mahbubul IM. Effect of particle size on the viscosity of nanofluids: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2018;82:1664–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hamzah MH, Sidik NA, Ken TL, Mamat R, Najafi G. Factors affecting the performance of hybrid nanofluids: a comprehensive review. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2017;115:630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Handbook-Fundamentals AS. American society of Heating. Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. 2009.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Izadi F, Ranjbarzadeh R, Kalbasi R, Afrand M. A new experimental correlation for non-Newtonian behavior of COOH-DWCNTs/antifreeze nanofluid. Phys E. 2018;1(98):83–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ranjbarzadeh R, Karimipour A, Afrand M, Isfahani AH, Shirneshan A. Empirical analysis of heat transfer and friction factor of water/graphene oxide nanofluid flow in turbulent regime through an isothermal pipe. Appl Therm Eng. 2017;5(126):538–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ilyas SU, Pendyala R, Marneni N. Stability of nanofluids. In engineering applications of nanotechnology. Cham: Springer; 2017. p. 1–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hwang YJ, Lee JK, Lee CH, Jung YM, Cheong SI, Lee CG, Ku BC, Jang SP. Stability and thermal conductivity characteristics of nanofluids. Thermochim Acta. 2007;455(1–2):70–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Nasiri A, Shariaty-Niasar M, Rashidi AM, Khodafarin R. Effect of CNT structures on thermal conductivity and stability of nanofluid. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2012;55(5–6):1529–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Koca HD, Doganay S, Turgut A. Thermal characteristics and performance of Ag-water nanofluid: application to natural circulation loops. Energy Convers Manag. 2017;1(135):9–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ranjbarzadeh R, Akhgar A, Musivand S, Afrand M. Effects of graphene oxide-silicon oxide hybrid nanomaterials on rheological behavior of water at various time durations and temperatures: synthesis, preparation and stability. Powder Technol. 2018;15(335):375–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wang RT, Wang JC. Intelligent dimensional and thermal performance analysis of Al2O3 nanofluid. Energy Convers Manag. 2017;15(138):686–97.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuancheng Geng
    • 1
  • Abdullah A. A. A. Al-Rashed
    • 2
  • Boshra Mahmoudi
    • 3
    • 4
  • Ali Sulaiman Alsagri
    • 5
  • Amin Shahsavar
    • 6
  • Pouyan Talebizadehsardari
    • 7
    • 8
    Email author
  1. 1.Fujian Polytechnic of Information TechnologyFuzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Automotive and Marine Engineering Technology, College of Technological StudiesThe Public Authority for Applied Education and TrainingAdailiyahKuwait
  3. 3.Research CenterSulaimani Polytechnic UniversitySulaymaniyahIraq
  4. 4.Department of Medical LaboratoryNational Institute of TechnologySulaymaniyahIraq
  5. 5.Mechanical Engineering Department, Unayzah College of EngineeringQassim UniversityQassimSaudi Arabia
  6. 6.Department of Mechanical EngineeringKermanshah University of TechnologyKermanshahIran
  7. 7.Department for Management of Science and Technology DevelopmentTon Duc Thang UniversityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam
  8. 8.Faculty of Applied SciencesTon Duc Thang UniversityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam

Personalised recommendations