Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 138, Issue 4, pp 2733–2749 | Cite as

Aqueous extraction of organic amaranth starch and their by-products

Characterisation before and after degreasing
  • Camila Delinski Bet
  • Cristina Soltovski de Oliveira
  • Tiago André Denck Colman
  • Radla Zabian Bassetto Bisinella
  • Cleoci Beninca
  • Luiz Gustavo Lacerda
  • Augusto Pumacahua Ramos
  • Egon SchnitzlerEmail author


The aim of this study was to characterise the organic amaranth flour (Amaranthus caudatus), native starch and by-products generated after its aqueous extraction (bagasse, post-sieving and post-centrifugation residues) and to evaluate the influence of lipids on the thermal, structural and pasting properties of these samples. The analyses performed were: thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry, viscographic analysis, scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). After aqueous extraction, the amaranth starch presented low protein and lipid content, which were retained together with inorganic material mainly in the post-sieving and post-centrifugation residues. TG curves showed three mass losses, associated with dehydration, macronutrients decomposition and oxidation of organic matter. These losses were consecutive for flour, bagasse and residues, resulting in a stability period after degreasing, which increased for the sample of defatted starch. About gelatinisation, the presence of lipids, fibre or proteins hinders the starch gelatinisation and the increase of viscosity, requiring higher energy. By microscopy, it was possible to identify different characteristics according proximal composition in each studied fraction. Three regions were identified by FTIR (lipid, protein and carbohydrates), and the spectral bands corroborated with the proximal analysis. The results obtained encourage the aqueous extraction of starch from organic sources, as well as future studies to evaluate the use of the generated residues in food formulations or starch films. The lipids removal process becomes interesting for the amaranth starch, favouring the occurrence of the gelatinisation process, property of greater industrial interest.


Organic starch Defatted amaranth Residues Thermal analysis 



The authors would like to thank the Brazilian organisations CAPES and CNPq (Proc. 307654/2017-6) for the financial support and to thank C-LABMU (UEPG) for help in the analysis.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Schirmer M, Höchstötter M, Jekle M, Arendt E, Becker T. Physicochemical and morphological characterization of different starches with variable amylose/amylopectina ratio. Food Hydrocoll. 2013;32:52–63.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Li G, Zhu F. Molecular structure of quinoa starch. Carbohydr Polym. 2017;158:124–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pérez S, Bertoft E. The molecular structures of starch components and their contribution to the architecture of starch granules: a comprehensive review. Starch/Stärke. 2010;68:389–420.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kong X, Corke H, Bertoft E. Fine structure characterization if amylopectins from grain amaranth starch. Carbohydr Res. 2009;344:1701–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Salcedo-Chavez B, Osuna-Castro J, Guevara-Lara F, Domínguez-Domínguez O, Paredes L. Optimization of the isoelectric precipitation method to obtain protein isolates from amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) seeds. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:6515–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Resio AC, Aguerre RJ, Suarez C. Hydration kinetics of amaranth grain. J Food Eng. 2006;72:247–53.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shevkani K, Singh N, Kaur A, Rana JC. Physicochemical, pasting, and functional properties of amaranth seed flours: effects of lipids removal. J Food Sci. 2014;79:1271–7.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Roa DF, Santagapita PR, Buera MP, Tolaba MP. Ball milling of Amaranth starch-enriched fraction. Changes on particle size, starch crystallinity, and functionality as a function of milling energy. Food Bioprocess Technol. 2014;7:2723–31.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nasir VA, Karakaya F. Consumer segments in organic foods market. J Consum Mark. 2014;31:263–77.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Winter CK, Davis SF. Organic foods. J Food Sci. 2006;71:117–24.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Villarreal ME, Ribotta PD, Iturriaga LB. Comparing methods for extracting amaranth starch and the properties of the isolated starches. LWT Food Sci Technol. 2013;51:441–7.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Correia PR, Beirão-da-Costa ML. Starch isolation from chestnut and a corn flours through alkaline and enzymatic methods. Food Bioprod Process. 2012;90:309–16.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bello-Pérez LA, García-Suárez FJ, Méndez-Montealvo G, Nascimento JRO, Lajolo FM, Cordenunsi BR. Isolation and Characterization of starch from seeds of Araucaria brasiliensis: a novel starch for application in food industry. Starch/Stärke. 2006;58:283–91.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Santacruz S, Koch K, Svensson E, Ruales J, Eliasson AC. Three under utilised sources of starch from the Andean region in Ecuador Part I. Physicochemical characterisation. Carbohydr Polym. 2002;49:63–70.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhu F. Barley starch: composition, structure, properties and modifications. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2017;16:558–79.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Li W, Gao J, Wu G, Zheng J, Ouyang S, Luo Q, Zhang G. Physicochemical and structural properties of A- and B-starch isolated from normal and waxy wheat: effects of lipids removal. Food Hydrocoll. 2016;60:364–73.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Baldwin PM. Starch granule-associated proteins and polypeptides: a review. Starch/Stärke. 2001;53:475–503.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fabian C, Ayucitra A, Ismadji S, Ju YH. Isolation and characterization of starch from defatted rice bran. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng. 2011;42:86–91.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Association of Official Analytical Chemistry (AOAC). Official methods of analysis. 17 ed. Washington; 2000.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Demiate IM, Figueroa AM, Guidolin MEZ, dos Santos TPR, Yangcheng H, Chang F, Jane JL. Physicochemical characterization of starches from dry beans cultivated in Brazil. Food Hydrocoll. 2016;61:812–20.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bet CD, Oliveira CS, Colman TAD, Marinho MT, Lacerda LG, Pumacahua-Ramos A, Schnitzler E. Organic amaranth starch: a study of its technological properties after heat-moisture treatment. Food Chem. 2018;247:1–8.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Oliveira CS, Bet CD, Bisinella RZB, Waiga L, Colman TAD, Schnitzler E. Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) on blends from potato starch (PS) and sweet potato starch (SPS). J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018;132:1–8.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gao J, Fezhong H, Go X, Zeng XA, Mason SL, Brennan MA, Brennan CS. The effect on starch pasting properties and predictive glycaemic response of muffin batters using Stevianna or inulin as a sucrose replacer. Starch/Stärke. 2018;70:9–10.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bet CD, Cordoba LP, Ribeiro LS, Schnitzler E. Effect of acid modification on the thermal, morphological and pasting properties of starch from mango kernel (Mangifera indica L.) of Palmer variety. Int Food Res J. 2017;24:1967–74.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ji N, Li X, Qiu C, Li G, Sun Q, Xiong L. Effects of heat moisture treatment on the physicochemical properties of starch nanoparticles. Carbohydr Polym. 2015;117:605–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Loubes MA, Resio AC, Tolaba MP, Suarez C. Mechanical and thermal characteristics of amaranth starch isolated by acid wet-milling procedure. LWT Food Sci Technol. 2012;46:519–24.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Malinski E, Daniel JR, Zhang XX, Whistler RL. Isolation of small starch granules and determination of their fat mimic characteristics. Cereal Chem. 2003;80:1–4.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhu F. Isolation, composition, structure, properties, modifications, and uses of yam starch. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2015;14:357–86.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cotos MRC, Salas IA. Aislamiento y caracterización parcial del almidón nativo de Amaranthus caudatus Linneo. Sociedad Química Del Perú. 2004;70:48–54.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kong X, Bao J, Corke H. Physical properties of Amaranthus starch. Food Chem. 2009;113:371–6.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Middlewood PG, Carson JK. Extraction of amaranth starch from an aqueous medium using microfiltration: membrane characterisation. J Membr Sci. 2012;405:284–90.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tapia-Blácido DR, Sobral PJA, Menegalli FC. Potential of Amaranthus cruentus BRS Alegria in the production of flour, starch and protein concentrate: chemical, thermal and rheological characterization. J Sci Food Agric. 2010;90:1185–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tapia-Blácido D, Mauri AN, Menegalli FC, Sobral PJA, Añón MC. Contribution of the starch, protein, and lipid fractions to the physical, thermal, and structural properties of amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) flour films. J Food Sci. 2007;72:293–300.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Roa DF, Santagapita PR, Buera MP, Tolaba MP. Amaranth milling strategies and fraction characterization by FT-IR. Food Bioprocess Technol. 2014;7:711–8.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Morrison WR. Starch-lipids: a reappraisal. Starch/Stärke. 1981;33:408–10.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Uthumporn U, Karim AA, Fazilah A. Defatting improves the hydrolysis of granular starch using a mixture of fungal amylolytic enzymes. Ind Crops Prod. 2013;43:441–9.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ortega JAA, Zavala AM, Hernández MC, Reyes JD. Analysis of trans fatty acids production and squalene variation during amaranth oil extraction. Cent Eur J Chem. 2012;10:1773–8.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Choi H, Kim W, Shin M. Properties of korean amaranth starch compared to waxy millet and waxy sorghum starches. Starch/Stärke. 2004;56:469–77.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gorinstein S, Pawelzik E, Delgado-Licon E, Yanamoto K, Shoichi K, Taniguchi H, Haruenkit R, Park YS, Jung ST, Drzewiecki J, Trakhtenberg S. Use of scanning electron microscopy to indicate the similarities and differences in pseudocereal and cereal proteins. J Food Sci Technol. 2004;39:183–9.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Steffolani ME, León AE, Pérez GT. Study of the physicochemical and functional characterization of quinoa and kañiwa starches. Starch/Stärke. 2013;65:976–83.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pumacahua-Ramos A, Demiate IM, Schnitzler E, Bedin AC, Telis-Romero J, Lopes-Filho JF. Morphological, thermal and physicochemical characteristics of small granules starch from Mirabilis jalapa L. Thermochim Acta. 2015;602:1–7.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Oates CG. Towards and understanding of starch granule structure and hydrolysis. Trends Food Sci Technol. 1997;8:375–82.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lineback DR. The starch granule: organisation and properties. Bak Dig. 1984;58:16–21.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Stark JR, Lynn A. Biochemistry of plant polysaccharides: starch granules large and small. Biochem Soc Trans. 1992;20:7–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Li C, Gilbert RG. Progress in controlling starch structure by modifying starch-branching enzymes. Planta. 2016;243:13–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bet CD, Cordoba LP, Ribeiro LS, Schnitzler E. Common vetch (Vicia sativa) as a new starch source: its thermal, rheological and structural properties after acid hydrolysis. Food Biophys. 2016;11:275–82.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lacerda LG, Filho MASC, Bauab T, Demiate IM, Colman TAD, Andrade MMP, Schnitzler E. The effects of heat-moisture treatment on avocado starch granules. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2016;120:387–93.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Andrade MMP, de Oliveira CS, Colman TAD, Da CF, Schnitzler E. Effects of heat-moisture treatment on organic cassava starch. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2014;115:2115–22.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Costa FJOG, Leivas CL, Waszczynsky N, Godoi RCB, Helm CV, Colman TAD, Schnitzler E. Characterisation of native starches of seeds of Araucaria angustifolia from germplasm collections. Thermochim Acta. 2013;564:172–7.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Corradini E, Imam SH, Agnelli JAM, Mattoso LHC. Effect of coconut, sisal and jute fibers on the properties of starch/gluten/glycerol matrix. J Polym Environ. 2009;17:1–9.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rodríguez-Miranda J, Hernández-Santos B, Herman-Lara E, Vivar-Vera MA, Carmona-García R, Gómez ACA, Martínez-Sánchez CE. Physicochemical and functional properties of whole and defatted meals from Mexican (Cucurbita pepo) pumpkin seeds. Int J Food Sci Technol. 2012;47:2297–303.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ogunsina BS, Radha C, Singh RSG. Physicochemical and functional properties of full-fat and defatted Moringa oleifera kernel flour. Int J Food Sci Technol. 2010;45:2433–9.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Toews R, Wang N. Physicochemical and functional properties of protein concentrates from pulses. Food Res Int. 2013;52:445–51.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Marcus JB. Lipids basics: fats and oils in foods and health. Culin Nutr. 2013;6:231–77. Scholar
  55. 55.
    Colman TAD, Demiate IM, Schnitzler E. The effect of microwave radiation on some thermal, rheological and structural properties of cassava starch. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2014;115:2245–52.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rudnik E, Matuschek N, Milanov N, Kettrup A. Thermal properties of starch succinates. Termochim Acta. 2005;427:163–6.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Arns B, Bartz J, Radunz M, Evangelho JA, Pinto VZ, Zavareze ER, Dias ARG. Impact of heat-moisture treatment on rice starch, applied directly in grain paddy rice or in isolated starch. LWT Food Sci Technol. 2015;60:708–13.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ribeiro LS, Cordoba LP, Colman TAD, de Oliveira CS, Andrade MMP, Schnitzler E. Influence of some sugars on the thermal, rheological and morphological properties of “pinhão” starch. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2014;117:935–42.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Iturriaga L, Lopez B, Añon M. Thermal and physicochemical characterization of seven argentine rice flours and starches. Food Res Int. 2004;37:437–47.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Singh N, Kaur S, Kaur A, Isono N, Ichihashi Y, Noda T, Rana JC. Structural, thermal, and rheological properties of Amaranthus hypochondriacus and Amaranthus caudatus starches. Starch/Stärke. 2014;66:457–67.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sun H, Yan S, Jiang W, Li G, Macritchie F. Contribution of lipid to physicochemical properties and Mantou-making quality of wheat flour. Food Chem. 2010;121:332–7.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Perera C, Hoover R, Martin AM. The effect of hydroxypropylation on the structure and physicochemical properties of native, defatted and heat-moisture treated potato starches. Food Res Int. 1997;30:235–47.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Liang X, King JM, Shih FF. Pasting property differences of commercial and isolated rice starch with added lipid and cyclodextrin. Cereal Chem. 2002;79:812–8.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kohyama K, Matsuki J, Yasui T, Sasaki T. A differential thermal analysis of the gelatinization and retrogradation of wheat starches with different amylopectin chain lengths. Carbohydr Polym. 2004;58:71–7.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Zavareze ER, Dias ARG. Impact of heat-moisture treatment and annealing in starches: a review. Carbohydr Polym. 2011;83:317–28.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Singh N, Singh J, Kaur L, Sodhi NS, Gill BS. Morphological, thermal and rheological properties of starches from different botanical sources. Food Chem. 2003;81:219–31.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Menegassi B, Pilosof AMR, Arêas JAG. Comparison of properties of native and extruded amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.—BRS Alegria) flour. LWT Food Sci Technol. 2011;44:1915–21.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Li G, Wang S, Zhu F. Physicochemical properties of quinoa starch. Carbohydr Polym. 2016;137:328–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Biliaderis JR. TonogaiInfluence of lipids on the thermal and mechanical properties of concentrated starch gels. J Agric Food Chem. 1991;39:833–40.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Morrison WR, Coventry AM. Extraction of lipids from cereal starches with hot aqueous alcohol. Starch/Stärke. 1985;37:83–7.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Debet MR, Gidley MJ. Three classes of starch granule swelling: influence of surface proteins and lipids. Carbohydr Polym. 2006;64:452–65.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chan HT, Bhat R, Karim AA. Effects of sodium dodecyle sulphate and sonication treatment on physicochemical properties of starch. Food Chem. 2010;120:703–9.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Wang SJ, Luo HY, Zhang J, Zhang Y, He ZH, Wang S. Alkali-induced changes in functional properties and in vitro digestibility of wheat starch: the role of surface proteins and lipids. J Agric Food Chem. 2014;62:3636–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Tester RF, Morrison WR. Swelling and gelatinization of cereal starches. III. Some properties of waxy and normal non waxy barley starches. Cereal Chem. 1992;69:645–58.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pomeranz Y. Wheat chemistry and technology II. 3rd ed. Saint Paul: American Association of Cereal Chemists; 1988. p. 258–389.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Silverstein RM, Webster FX. Identificação espectrométrica de compostos orgânicos. 6th ed. Rio de Janeiro: LTC; 2006.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Cremer DR, Kaletunç G. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic study of the chemical microstructure of corn and oat flour-based extrudates. Carbohydr Polym. 2003;52:53–65.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Elizondo NJ, Sobral PA, Menegalli FC. Development of films based on blends of Amaranthus cruentus flour and poly (vinyl alcohol). Carbohydr Polym. 2009;75:592–8.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Warren FJ, Gidley MJ, Flanagan BM. Infrared spectroscopy as a tool to characterise starch ordered structure—a joint FTIR-ATR, NMR, XRD and DSC study. Carbohydr Polym. 2016;139:35–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kizil R, Irudayaraj J, Seetharaman K. Charaterization of irradiated starches by using FT-Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:3912–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kacuráková M, Capek P, Sasinková V, Wellner N, Ebringerová A. FT-IR study of plant cell wall model compounds: pectic polysaccharides and hemicelluloses. Carbohydr Polym. 2000;43:195–203.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Liu T, Ma Y, Xue S, Shi J. Modifications of structure and physicochemical properties of maize starch by γ-irradiation treatments. LWT Food Sci Technol. 2012;46:56–163.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Zeng J, Li G, Gao H, Ru Z. Comparison of A and B starch granules from three wheat varieties. Molecules. 2011;16:10570–91.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Pavlovic S, Brandao PRG. Adsorption of starch, amylose, amylopectin and glucose monomer and their effect on the flotation of hematite and quartz. Miner Eng. 2003;16:1117–22.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Nickless EM, Holroyd SE, Hamilton G, Gordon KC, Wargent JJ. Analytical method development using FTIR-ATR and FT-Raman spectroscopy to assay fructose, sucrose, glucose and dihydroxyacetone, in Leptospermum scoparium nectar. Vib Spectrosc. 2016;84:38–43.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Repo-Carrasco-Valencia R, Peña J, Kallio H, Salminen S. Dietary fiber and other functional components in two varieties of crude and extruded kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus). J Cereal Sci. 2009;49:219–24.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ayo JA. The effect of amaranth grain flour on the quality of bread. Int J Food Prop. 2001;4:341–51.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bantea-Zagareanu V. Use of walnuts (Juglans Regia L.) waste from physical extraction of oil to produce flour and sweets. J Fac Food Eng. 2018;1:74–80.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Pineli LLO, de Aguiar LA, Oliveira GT, Botelho RBA, do Ibiapina MDFP, de Lima HC, Costa AM. Use of Baru (Brazilian Almond) waste from physical extraction of oil to produce gluten free cakes. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2015;70:50–5.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Abouelezz K, Yuan J, Wang G, Bian G. The nutritive value of cassava starch extraction residue for growing ducks. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2018;50:1231–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Zambom MA, Fernandes T, Schmidt EL, Gonçalves JAG, dos Pozza MSS, Javorski CR, de Souza LC, dos Tinini RCR. Silage of residue from the extraction of cassava starch in diets from lactating holstein cows. Ciências Agrárias. 2015;36:1701–12.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    López OV, Versino F, Villar MA, García MA. Agro-industrial residue from starch extraction of Pachyrhizus ahipa as filler of thermoplastic corn starch films. Carbohydr Polym. 2015;134:324–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Igura M, Okazaki M, Ohmi M. Decomposition characteristics of biodegradable plastics made from Sago starch extortion residue. J App Polym Sci. 2011;119:3145–51.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Igura M, Okazaki M. Selective sorption of heavy metal on phosphorylated sago starch-extraction residue. J App Polym Sci. 2012;124:549–59.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Fernandes T, Zambom MA, Castagnara DD, Souza LC, Damasceno DO, Schmidt E. Use of dried waste of cassava starch extraction for feeding lactating cows. An Acad Bras Sci. 2015;87:1101–11.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Camila Delinski Bet
    • 1
  • Cristina Soltovski de Oliveira
    • 1
  • Tiago André Denck Colman
    • 2
  • Radla Zabian Bassetto Bisinella
    • 1
  • Cleoci Beninca
    • 1
    • 3
  • Luiz Gustavo Lacerda
    • 1
  • Augusto Pumacahua Ramos
    • 4
  • Egon Schnitzler
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.State University of Ponta GrossaPonta GrossaBrazil
  2. 2.Federal University of Grande DouradosDouradosBrazil
  3. 3.Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Santa Catarina (IFSC)CanoinhasBrazil
  4. 4.Universidad Peruana UniónChullunquiani, JuliacaPeru

Personalised recommendations