Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 138, Issue 5, pp 3007–3021 | Cite as

Experimental investigation of enhanced heat transfer of a car radiator using ZnO nanoparticles in H2O–ethylene glycol mixture

  • Asif Khan
  • Hafiz Muhammad AliEmail author
  • Rabia Nazir
  • Rashid Ali
  • Arjmand Munir
  • Bilal Ahmad
  • Zeeshan Ahmad


Water is mainly used in moving vehicles as a coolant to remove the engine’s heat mostly through forced convection heat transfer. However, mixtures of water and anti-freezing materials like ethylene glycol (EG) are also used as coolant. In the present research work, a mixture of EG and water (50:50) mixed with ZnO nanoparticle, called nanofluid, is utilized in a car radiator. Different volume concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles (0.01%, 0.02%, 0.03% and 0.04%) have been added in base fluid. It has been observed that overall heat transfer coefficient and heat transfer rate enhanced with different volume concentrations by mixing ZnO particle in base fluid, while flow rate varied in a range of 4–12 LPM (litre per minute). A maximum enhancement in heat transfer rate up to 36% has been observed experimentally at 0.04% volume concentration of ZnO nanoparticle. Greater heat transfer rate has been observed at low flow rate, i.e. at 4 LPM and 6 LPM, as compared to higher flow rate, and contribution of inlet temperature is found to be minimum in transferring the heat.


Nanofluids Radiator ZnO Flow rate Ethylene glycol 

List of symbols


Heat transfer coefficient (W m2K−1)


Thermal conductivity (W mK−1)


Radiator tube length (m)


Velocity of the flow (m s−1)


Mass flow rate (kg s−1)


Reynolds number


Outlet temperature (°C)


Nusselt number


Peripheral area of tubes (m2)


Width of car radiator (m)


Prandtl number


Specific heat (J kg K−1)


Heat transfer (J)


Inlet temperature (°C)


Wall temperature (°C)


Tube hydraulic diameter (m)

Q (dot)

Heat transfer rate (W)

Greek symbols


Viscosity (Pa s)


Density (kg m−3)


Nanoparticle volume fraction





Base fluid


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding this publication.


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Asif Khan
    • 1
  • Hafiz Muhammad Ali
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rabia Nazir
    • 2
  • Rashid Ali
    • 3
  • Arjmand Munir
    • 4
  • Bilal Ahmad
    • 4
  • Zeeshan Ahmad
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of Engineering and TechnologyTaxilaPakistan
  2. 2.PCSIR Labs ComplexLahorePakistan
  3. 3.Karachi Institute of Power EngineeringKarachiPakistan
  4. 4.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSwedish College of Engineering and TechnologyWah CanttPakistan

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