Natural and acid-treated attapulgite reinforced soybean oil-based polyurethane/epoxy resin interpenetrating polymer networks
- 8 Downloads
Soybean oil-based polyurethane (PU)/epoxy (EP) interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) nanocomposites were prepared with natural attapulgite (N-ATT) and acid-treated attapulgite (A-ATT). The structure, glass transition, damping properties, thermal stability, mechanical properties and morphology of PU/EP IPN/ATT nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), thermogravimetric analyzer, universal test machine and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). XRD showed that interaction with PU did not change the crystal structures of ATT. DMA results revealed the addition of ATT improved the glass transition temperature of the soybean oil-based PU/EP IPN, especially for A-ATT. However, the incorporation of ATT slightly decreased the damping properties of the soybean oil-based PU/EP IPN. Tensile tests confirmed that A-ATT had a significant reinforcement effect on the soybean oil-based PU/EP IPN. The tensile strength of the soybean oil-based PU/EP IPN increased by 56% with the addition of 4 mass% A-ATT. SEM demonstrated the relatively uniform dispersion of both N-ATT and A-ATT in the soybean oil-based PU/EP IPN matrix.
KeywordsSoybean oil-based polyurethane Interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) Attapulgite Damping properties Thermal properties Mechanical properties
The authors are grateful for financial supports from Program for the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (20620140066), Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (IRT1252) and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.
- 1.Petrie E. Epoxy adhesive formulations. New York: McGraw Hill; 2005.Google Scholar
- 9.Kargarzadeh H, Ahmad I, Abdullah I. Liquid rubbers as toughening agents. Micro- and nanostructured epoxy/rubber blends. New York: Wiley; 2014. p. 31–52.Google Scholar
- 11.Zhang J, Wang Y, Wang X, Ding G, Pan Y, Xie H, et al. Effects of amino- functionalized carbon nanotubes on the properties of amine- terminated butadiene- acrylonitrile rubber- toughened epoxy resins. J Appl Polym Sci. 2014;131(13):40472.Google Scholar
- 14.Sperling L, Hu R. Interpenetrating polymer networks. Polymer blends handbook. Berlin: Springer; 2014. p. 677–724.Google Scholar
- 22.Bradley W. The structural scheme of attapulgite. Am Mineral. 1940;25:405–10.Google Scholar
- 23.Sun Y, Zhang Y, Xu K, Xu W, Yu D, Zhu L, et al. Thermal, mechanical properties, and low-temperature performance of fibrous nanoclay-reinforced epoxy asphalt composites and their concretes. J Appl Polym Sci. 2015;132(12):41694.Google Scholar
- 25.Williams RJJ, Rozenberg BA, Pascault J-P. Reaction-induced phase separation in modified thermosetting polymers. Polymer analysis polymer physics. Berlin: Springer; 1997. p. 95–156.Google Scholar
- 45.Chartoff RP, Weissman PT, Sircar A. The application of dynamic mechanical methods to Tg determination in polymers: an overview. Assignment of the glass transition. West Conshohocken: ASTM International; 1994.Google Scholar
- 53.Yak S. Advances in interpenetrating polymer networks. In: Klempner D, Frisch KC, editors. Lancaster: Technomic Publishing Company; 1994.Google Scholar