Exergy and thermoeconomic analysis of cream pasteurisation plant

  • Gurjeet Singh
  • P. J. Singh
  • V. V. TyagiEmail author
  • P. Barnwal
  • A. K. Pandey


Cream is a milk derivative comparatively rich in fat, present in the form of emulsion of fat in skimmed milk, and acquired by physical extraction from raw milk with the help of centrifugal separator. The cream with variable fat content (10–40%) is commonly employed as an ingredient to traditional or modern desserts. It is also used in the production of value-added milk products such as butter and ghee apart from regular cooking applications. The pasteurisation, being an important safety requirement of milk food products, is usually materialised by heating the milk cream at a temperature of 90 °C for a period of one second. In the current work, thermodynamic and thermoeconomic derivatives in combination with all available constraints have been determined for high temperature short-time cream pasteurisation plant. The energy and exergy efficiency of cream pasteurisation plant was determined to be 86.88% and 66.11%, respectively. The cumulative value of energy destruction and exergy demolition in subunits of cream pasteurisation plant was estimated to be 93.88 kW and 11.39 kW, respectively, which mainly ascribed to complete enzymatic denaturation of fluid cream. The overall operating cost rate of complete cream pasteurisation plant was calculated as 1649.10 Rs./H, 22.02% portion of which was associated with electrical energy consumption. Further, the cost rate of exergy degradation for chilling and cooling activities was reported as 617.57 Rs./H and 357.55 Rs./H, respectively. The exergoeconomic factors of heating (14.75%) and chilling activity (0.82%) articulated that capital investment was dominant in the former while thermal degradations were enunciated most flagrant in latter.


Energy efficiency Exergy efficiency Exergoeconomic analysis Cream pasteurisation plant 

List of symbols


Annual cost of component (Rs.)

\( \dot{C} \)

Cost flow rate (Rs. H−1)


Exergetic cost (Rs. MJ−1)

cf, k

Unit exergetic cost of fuel (Rs. MJ−1)

cp, k

Unit exergetic cost of product (Rs. MJ−1)


Specific heat (kJ kg−1 K−1)


Capital recovery factor

DD, k

Cost rate of exergy destruction (Rs. H−1)

\( \mathop E\limits^{ \cdot } \)

Energy (kJ s−1)

\( \mathop {\text{EL}}\limits^{ \cdot } \)

Energy loss rate (kW)

Eβ, k

Relative energy destruction ratio (%)

Exβ, k

Relative exergy destruction ratio (%)

EF, k

Energetic factor (%)

ExF, k

Exergetic factor (%)


Specific exergy (kJ kg−1)

\( \mathop {\text{Ex}}\limits^{ \cdot } \)

Exergy rate (kW)

\( \mathop {\text{Ex}}\limits^{ \cdot }_{\text{D}} \)

Exergy destruction rate (kW)


Energy improvement potential (kW)


Exergy improvement potential (kW)


Exergoeconomic factor of component


Specific enthalpy (kJ kg−1)




Interest rate (%)


Ratio of salvage value

\( \mathop m\limits^{ \cdot } \)

Mass flow rate (kg s−1)


Milk fat


Purchase equipment cost (Rs.)


Present worth factor


Present worth of component (Rs.)


Percentage relative cost difference (%)

Rs. MJ−1

Rupees per mega-joule


Temperature (K)


Specific entropy (kJ kg−1 K−1)


Entropy (kJ K−1)


Salvage value (Rs.)


Sustainability index


Total cost of investment (Rs.)


Total operating cost rate (Rs. H−1)


Tons per day


Specific volume (m3 kg−1)


Work rate (kW)

\( \dot{Z}_{\text{T}} \)

Levelised cost rate associated with capital investment and operation and maintenance cost (Rs. H−1)

\( \dot{Z}_{\text{CI}} \)

Levelised cost rate associated with capital investment (Rs. H−1)

\( \dot{Z}_{\text{OM}} \)

Levelised cost rate associated with operation and maintenance cost (Rs. H−1)


High temperature short time

Greek letters


Universal gas constant (8.314 kJ mol−1 K−1)


Density (kg m−3)

\( \eta \)

Energy efficiency (%)


Exergy efficiency (%)


Dead state



Rupees (Indian currency)



Balance tank


Condenser and fan combination


Chilling section


Cooling section


Heating section


Heat exchanger












Regeneration section


Storage tank


Water tank


Any component









The author would like to acknowledge the support provided by Verka Milk Plant, Mohali, Punjab (India), and greatly appreciate the plant management and technical staff for their cooperation throughout the evaluation phase.


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gurjeet Singh
    • 1
  • P. J. Singh
    • 1
  • V. V. Tyagi
    • 2
    Email author
  • P. Barnwal
    • 3
  • A. K. Pandey
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringPunjab Engineering CollageChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.School of Energy ManagementShri Mata Vaishnao Devi UniversityJammuIndia
  3. 3.Dairy Engineering DivisionICAR-National Dairy Research InstituteKarnalIndia
  4. 4.Research Centre for Nano-Materials and Energy Technology (RCNMET), School of Science and TechnologySunway UniversityPetaling JayaMalaysia

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