Thermal performance improvement in water nanofluid/GNP–SDBS in novel design of double-layer microchannel heat sink with sinusoidal cavities and rectangular ribs

  • Erfan Khodabandeh
  • Seyed Alireza Rozati
  • Mohammad Joshaghani
  • Omid Ali Akbari
  • Soheil Akbari
  • Davood ToghraieEmail author


In this numerical study, laminar flow of water nanofluid/GNP–SDBS (graphene nanoplatelet–sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate) for 0–0.1% solid nanoparticles mass fraction was investigated for Reynolds numbers of 50–1000 in 3D space via finite volume method. In the newly proposed microchannel design, the cooling fluid is moving in countercurrent in the upper and lower layers of the microchannels, and there are cavities and sinusoidal routes on the solid walls of the microchannel, and the presence of rectangular ribs on the flow centerline along the fluid path enhances mixing for cooling fluid and creates better heat transfer for warm surfaces. The results of this study show that this special design of the microchannel can have a substantial increase in Nusselt number and heat transfer so that in the considered geometry by adding solid nanoparticles mass fraction it is possible to increase average Nusselt number for each Reynolds number by approximately 20%. Also, the mixing of the fluid because of formation of secondary flows has a strong effect on making the temperature distribution uniform in the cooling fluid and solid bed (wall) of the microchannel, especially in the lower layer. The upper layer of the microchannel always has a lower temperature due to indirect contact with heat flux compared with the lower layer. In this study, by increasing Reynolds number and mass fraction of solid nanoparticles the Nusselt number is increased and heat resistance of the lower wall of the microchannel is reduced. Based on the investigation of flow field and heat transfer, the use of the proposed design of the microchannel is recommended for Reynolds number less than 300.


Novel microchannel design Sinusoidal cavities Rectangular rips Water nanofluid/GNP–SDBS Nusselt number Double-layer microchannel heat sink 



Mass fraction/wt%


Specific heat capacity/J Kg−1 K−1


Gravitational acceleration/ms−2




Thermal conductivity coefficient/Wm−1k−1




Reynolds number


Velocity/ms−1x direction


Velocity/ms−1y direction


Velocity/ms−1z direction

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Viscosity/Pa s













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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mechanical Engineering DeptAmirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic)TehranIran
  2. 2.Mechanical Engineering DeptIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran
  3. 3.Civil Engineering DeptUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA
  4. 4.Young Researchers and Elite Club, Khomeinishahr BranchIslamic Azad UniversityKhomeinishahrIran
  5. 5.Department of Chemical EngineeringIran University of Science and Technology (IUST)TehranIran
  6. 6.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khomeinishahr BranchIslamic Azad UniversityKhomeinishahrIran

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