Advertisement

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 136, Issue 4, pp 1831–1846 | Cite as

Three-dimensional multiphase CFD modeling of thermal–hydraulic characteristics of nanofluid flow in helical microchannels

  • Sina Nabati Shoghl
  • Zakaria Loloei
  • Mostafa Keshavarz MoravejiEmail author
Article
  • 39 Downloads

Abstract

Forced convection heat transfer of two different types of water-based nanofluids (Al2O3, TiO2) was investigated numerically. In this numerical investigation, mixture two-phase model was considered and the governing equations were discretized based on the finite element method. The developed model agrees well with the experimental data for the two straight and helical microchannel tubes. The presented model covers the helical microchannel with different axial pitches and curvature ratios. The obtained results showed that geometrical parameters (curvature ratio and axial pitch) with a combination of nanofluid types and concentration have impressive effects on thermal performance and pressure drop. The results revealed that the Nu number was about 14% higher compared to pure water for the helical-containing Al2O3 nanofluids. Moreover, addition of both nanoparticles had negligible effect on friction factor in helical microchannel. The optimum operating conditions which are most economical from an industrial point of view were evaluated using the effectiveness parameter (η).

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Helical microchannel Nanofluid Mixture model CFD Finite element method 

List of symbols

A

Heat transfer area (m2)

Cp

Specific heat capacity (kJ kg−1 K−1)

C

Drag coefficient

d

Tube diameter (m)

D

Coil diameter (m)

h

Heat transfer coefficient (W m−2 K−1)

H

Axial pitch (m)

f

Friction factor

k

Thermal conductivity (W m−1 K−1)

L

Tube length (m)

m

Mass flow rate (kg s−1)

Nu

Nusselt number

P

Pressure (N m−2)

Pr

Prandtl number

Q

Heat transfer rate (W)

Re

Reynolds number

t

Time (s)

T

Temperature (K)

v, u

Velocity (m s−1)

Greek symbols

δ

Curvature ratio (di/D)

µ

Viscosity (Pa s)

Δ

Absolute deviation

φ

Volume fraction

γ

Torsion (H/πD)

v

Kinematic viscosity (m2 s−1)

q

Density (kg m−3)

Subscripts

0

Base condition

ave

Average

b

Bulk

d

Dispersed phase

f

Fluid

i

Component

nf

Nanofluid

p

Particles

s

Solid phase

w

Water, wall

c

Continuous (Eq. 1)–(Eq. 7)–(Eq. 15)

φd

Volume fraction of dispersion phase

References

  1. 1.
    Afrand M, Najafabadi KN, Akbari M. Effects of temperature and solid volume fraction on viscosity of SiO 2-MWCNTs/SAE40 hybrid nanofluid as a coolant and lubricant in heat engines. Appl Therm Eng. 2016;102:45–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hadi Najafabadi H, Keshavarz Moraveji M. Three-dimensional CFD modeling of fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of Al2O3/water nanofluid in microchannel heat sink with Eulerian-Eulerian approach. Iran J Chem Eng. 2016;13(4):46–61.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Qi Z, Zhao Y, Chen J. Performance enhancement study of mobile air conditioning system using microchannel heat exchangers. Int J Refrig. 2010;33(2):301–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Arabpour A, Karimipour A, Toghraie D. The study of heat transfer and laminar flow of kerosene/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanofluid in the microchannel heat sink with slip boundary condition. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018;131(2):1553–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Esfe MH, Saedodin S. Turbulent forced convection heat transfer and thermophysical properties of Mgo–water nanofluid with consideration of different nanoparticles diameter, an empirical study. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2015;119(2):1205–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hejazian M, Moraveji MK. A comparative analysis of single and two-phase models of turbulent convective heat transfer in a tube for TiO2 nanofluid with CFD. Numer Heat Transf A Appl. 2013;63(10):795–806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shoghl SN. Experimental investigation on pool boiling heat transfer of ZnO, and CuO water-based nanofluids and effect of surfactant on heat transfer coefficient. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2013;45:122–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shoghl SN, Bahrami M, Moraveji MK. Experimental investigation and CFD modeling of the dynamics of bubbles in nanofluid pool boiling. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2014;58:12–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rashidi S, Eskandarian M, Mahian O, Poncet S. Combination of nanofluid and inserts for heat transfer enhancement. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018;9:1–24.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rashidi S, Akbarzadeh M, Karimi N, Masoodi R. Combined effects of nanofluid and transverse twisted-baffles on the flow structures, heat transfer and irreversibilities inside a square duct—a numerical study. Appl Therm Eng. 2018;130:135–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Moraveji MK, Darabi M, Haddad SMH, Davarnejad R. Modeling of convective heat transfer of a nanofluid in the developing region of tube flow with computational fluid dynamics. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2011;38(9):1291–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Moraveji MK, Ardehali RM, Ijam A. CFD investigation of nanofluid effects (cooling performance and pressure drop) in mini-channel heat sink. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2013;40:58–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shoghl SN, Jamali J, Moraveji MK. Electrical conductivity, viscosity, and density of different nanofluids: an experimental study. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci. 2016;74:339–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shoghl SN, Bahrami M, Jamialahmadi M. The boiling performance of ZnO, α-Al2O3 and MWCNTs/water nanofluids: an experimental study. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci. 2017;80:27–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rashidi S, Bovand M, Esfahani JA, Ahmadi G. Discrete particle model for convective Al2O3–water nanofluid around a triangular obstacle. Appl Therm Eng. 2016;100:39–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rashidi S, Mahian O, Languri EM. Applications of nanofluids in condensing and evaporating systems. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018;131(3):2027–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Laein RP, Rashidi S, Esfahani JA. Experimental investigation of nanofluid free convection over the vertical and horizontal flat plates with uniform heat flux by PIV. Adv Powder Technol. 2016;27(2):312–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ho C-J, Wei L, Li Z. An experimental investigation of forced convective cooling performance of a microchannel heat sink with Al2O3/water nanofluid. Appl Therm Eng. 2010;30(2–3):96–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shirejini SZ, Rashidi S, Esfahani JA. Recovery of drop in heat transfer rate for a rotating system by nanofluids. J Mol Liq. 2016;220:961–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wu X, Wu H, Cheng P. Pressure drop and heat transfer of Al2O3–H2O nanofluids through silicon microchannels. J Micromech Microeng. 2009;19(10):105020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jung J-Y, Oh H-S, Kwak H-Y. Forced convective heat transfer of nanofluids in microchannels. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2009;52(1–2):466–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fotukian S, Esfahany MN. Experimental study of turbulent convective heat transfer and pressure drop of dilute CuO/water nanofluid inside a circular tube. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2010;37(2):214–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fotukian S, Esfahany MN. Experimental investigation of turbulent convective heat transfer of dilute γ-Al2O3/water nanofluid inside a circular tube. Int J Heat Fluid Flow. 2010;31(4):606–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Behzadmehr A, Saffar-Avval M, Galanis N. Prediction of turbulent forced convection of a nanofluid in a tube with uniform heat flux using a two phase approach. Int J Heat Fluid Flow. 2007;28(2):211–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bovand M, Rashidi S, Ahmadi G, Esfahani JA. Effects of trap and reflect particle boundary conditions on particle transport and convective heat transfer for duct flow-A two-way coupling of Eulerian–Lagrangian model. Appl Therm Eng. 2016;108:368–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lotfi R, Saboohi Y, Rashidi A. Numerical study of forced convective heat transfer of nanofluids: comparison of different approaches. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2010;37(1):74–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kurowski L, Chmiel-Kurowska K, Thulliea J. Numerical simulation of heat transfer in nanofluids. Comput Aided Chem Eng. 2009;26:967–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fard MH, Esfahany MN, Talaie M. Numerical study of convective heat transfer of nanofluids in a circular tube two-phase model versus single-phase model. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2010;37(1):91–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Prabhanjan D, Raghavan G, Rennie T. Comparison of heat transfer rates between a straight tube heat exchanger and a helically coiled heat exchanger. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2002;29(2):185–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wu Z, Wang L, Sundén B. Pressure drop and convective heat transfer of water and nanofluids in a double-pipe helical heat exchanger. Appl Therm Eng. 2013;60(1–2):266–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Liu Z-G, Liang S-Q, Takei M. Experimental study on forced convective heat transfer characteristics in quartz microtube. Int J Therm Sci. 2007;46(2):139–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Minea AA. Uncertainties in modeling thermal conductivity of laminar forced convection heat transfer with water alumina nanofluids. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2014;68:78–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cheng L, Kuznetsov AV. Heat transfer in a laminar flow in a helical pipe filled with a fluid saturated porous medium. Int J Therm Sci. 2005;44(8):787–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Akbari M, Galanis N, Behzadmehr A. Comparative assessment of single and two-phase models for numerical studies of nanofluid turbulent forced convection. Int J Heat Fluid Flow. 2012;37:136–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chon CH, Kihm KD, Lee SP, Choi SU. Empirical correlation finding the role of temperature and particle size for nanofluid (Al 2 O 3) thermal conductivity enhancement. Appl Phys Lett. 2005;87(15):153107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Stephan P, Kabelac S, Kind M, Martin H, Mewes D, Schaber K. VDI heat atlas. Berlin: Springer; 2010.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ramires ML, Nieto de Castro CA, Fareleira JM, Wakeham WA. Thermal conductivity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. J Chem Eng Data. 1994;39(1):186–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chen H, Ding Y, He Y, Tan C. Rheological behaviour of ethylene glycol based titania nanofluids. Chem Phys Lett. 2007;444(4–6):333–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pak BC, Cho YI. Hydrodynamic and heat transfer study of dispersed fluids with submicron metallic oxide particles. Exp Heat Transf Int J. 1998;11(2):151–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Maxwell J. A treatise on electricity and magnetism, vol. II. Oxford: Clarendon; 1904.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Jamali J, Shoghl SN. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of fluid flow and heat transfer in the central pore of carbon nanopipes. RSC Advances. 2014;4(101):57958–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zhang H, Shao S, Xu H, Tian C. Heat transfer and flow features of Al2O3–water nanofluids flowing through a circular microchannel—experimental results and correlations. Appl Therm Eng. 2013;61(2):86–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    White C. Fluid friction and its relation to heat transfer. Trans Inst Chem Eng. 1932;10:66–86.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Salman B, Mohammed H, Kherbeet AS, Saidur R. Experimental investigation of heat transfer enhancement in a microtube using nanofluids. 10th International Conference on Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, 14–26 July 2014 Orlando, Florida.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mohammed HA, Narrein K. Thermal and hydraulic characteristics of nanofluid flow in a helically coiled tube heat exchanger. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2012;39(9):1375–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sattler KD. Handbook of nanophysics: nanotubes and nanowires. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringAmirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic)TehranIran

Personalised recommendations