Thermal and exergoeconomic analysis of a dairy food processing plant

  • Gurjeet Singh
  • P. J. Singh
  • V. V. TyagiEmail author
  • A. K. Pandey


The dairy processing industry in India, on an average basis, involves an extensive amount of thermal and electrical energy consumption, i.e. 2.51 × 105 kW MT−1 and 1.44 × 105 kW MT−1, respectively, for an installed milk food processing capacity of 1.21 × 105 TPD. However, energy consumption spectrum depends upon the level of automation along with better utilisation of utility resources. The global ultra-high-temperature (UHT) pasteurised milk trade was valued at € 52.29 billion in 2012 and is expected to reach € 114.38 billion by 2019–2020. In the present work energy, exergy and exergoeconomic evaluation of ultra-high-temperature milk pasteurisation plant have been considered. The overall energy efficiency and efficiency pertaining to executable potential of energy in UHT Milk Processing Unit were reported to be 86.36% and 53.02%. The specific exergy destruction and specific exergy improvement potential were estimated to be 219.23 kJ kg−1 and 137.60 kJ kg−1, respectively. The highest possible retrievable exergy potential of the plant was associated with heating coil, i.e. 158.98 kW, followed by homogeniser (54.62 kW), which pinpointed towards the possibility of huge technical improvement. The processing cost was enumerated to be highest for heating coil (rk: 38.35%) followed by regeneration-1 (rk: 23.40%). Further, the total operating cost rate associated with thermodynamic deficiencies of subunits was estimated to be highest for heating coil (4859.82 € H−1) followed by regenerator-2 (1264.88 € H−1) and homogeniser (1187.14 € H−1). The broad survey of thermoeconomic indices of subunits indicated that the level of exergetic destruction was far more on higher side.


Energy Exergy Exergoeconomic analysis Dairy food processing plant 

List of symbols


Annual cost of component (€)

\(\mathop C\limits^{ \cdot }\)

Cost flow rate (€ H−1)


Exergetic cost (€ MJ−1)


Unit exergetic cost of fuel (€ MJ−1)


Unit exergetic cost of product (€ MJ−1)


Specific heat (kJ kg K−1)


Capital recovery factor


Cost rate of exergy destruction (€ H−1)


Energy (kJ s−1)


Energy loss rate (kW)


Relative energy destruction ratio (%)

Exβ, k

Relative exergy destruction ratio (%)

EF, k

Energetic factor (%)

ExF, k

Exergetic factor (%)


Specific exergy (kJ kg−1)


Exergy rate (kW)


Exergy destruction rate (kW)


Energy improvement potential (kW)


Exergy improvement potential (kW)


Exergoeconomic factor of component


Specific enthalpy (kJ kg−1)




Interest rate (%)


Ratio of salvage value


Kilowatt hour

\(\mathop m\limits^{ \cdot }\)

Mass flow rate (kg s−1)


Milk fat


Purchase equipment cost (€)


Present worth factor


Present worth of component (€)


Percentage relative cost difference (%)

€ MJ−1

Euro per megajoule


Temperature (K)


Specific entropy (kJ kg−1 K−1)


Salvage value (€)


Sustainability index


Total cost of investment (€)


Total operating cost rate (€ H−1)


Tons per day


Specific volume (m3 kg−1)


Work rate (kW)


Levelised cost rate associated with capital investment and operation and maintenance cost (€ H−1)


Levelised cost rate associated with capital investment (€ H−1)


Levelised cost rate associated with operation and maintenance cost (€ H−1)

Greek letters


Universal gas constant (8.314 kJ mol−1 K−1)


Density (kg/m3)


Energy efficiency (%)


Exergy efficiency (%)


Dead state






Heating coil




Regeneration section-1


Regeneration section-2


Any component

In, out

Inlet, outlet





The authors would like to acknowledge the support extended by Verka Milk Plant, Chandigarh (India), and appreciates the cooperation provided by technical staff and management of dairy plant throughout the phase of plant assessment.


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gurjeet Singh
    • 1
  • P. J. Singh
    • 1
  • V. V. Tyagi
    • 2
    Email author
  • A. K. Pandey
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringPunjab Engineering CollegeChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.School of Energy ManagementShri Mata Vaishno Devi UniversityJammu (J&K)India
  3. 3.Research Centre for Nano-Materials and Energy Technology (RCNMET), School of Science and TechnologySunway UniversityPetaling JayaMalaysia

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