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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 136, Issue 3, pp 1433–1445 | Cite as

Analysis of the effects of inclination angle, nanoparticle volume fraction and its size on forced convection from an inclined elliptic cylinder in aqueous nanofluids

  • Chandi SasmalEmail author
Article
  • 51 Downloads

Abstract

In this work, a detailed numerical investigation has been carried out to study the forced convection heat transfer from an inclined elliptic cylinder of a fixed aspect ratio of 0.5 immersed in a streaming water-based Al2O3 nanofluid using the two-phase Buongiorno’s model. In particular, this study presents extensive numerical results on how the cylinder inclination angle, nanoparticle volume fraction and its size are going to influence the local flow, temperature and nanoparticle concentration fields in the vicinity of the cylinder surface as well as the gross engineering parameters like the drag coefficient and Nusselt number over the following ranges of conditions as: Reynolds number, \(0.01 \le Re \le 40\); cylinder inclination angle, \(0 \le \lambda \le 90\); nanoparticle volume fraction, \(0 \le \phi \le 0.06\) and two nanoparticle sizes (dnp), namely 30 nm and 60 nm. It has been found that both the Nusselt number and drag force increase with \(\phi\), but decrease with dnp under otherwise identical conditions. On the other hand, at a particular value of Re, \(\phi\) and dnp, the value of the average Nusselt number increases with the increasing values of \(\lambda\), whereas the value of the drag coefficient decreases. Finally, from an application standpoint, a simple analytical formula for the average Nusselt number is provided as a function of Re, \(\phi\) and \(\lambda\) which will facilitate the interpolation of the present results for the intermediate values of these governing parameters.

Keywords

Nanofluids Elliptic cylinder Forced convection Buongiorno’s model Inclination angle 

List of symbols

a

Semi-minor axis (m)

b

Semi-major axis (m)

AR

Aspect ratio of the cylinder (= a/b), dimensionless

Cp,bf

Specific heat capacity of base fluid (J kg−1 K−1)

Cp,np

Specific heat capacity of nanoparticle (J kg−1 K−1)

Cp,nf

Specific heat capacity of nanofluid (J kg−1 K−1)

CD

Total drag coefficient, dimensionless

D

Diameter of the outer domain (m)

dnp

Diameter of the nanoparticle (nm)

FD

Total drag force (N)

h

Heat transfer coefficient (W m−2 K−1)

kbf

Thermal conductivity of base fluid (W m−1 K−1)

knp

Thermal conductivity of nanoparticle (W m−1 K−1)

knf

Thermal conductivity of nanofluid, (W m−1 K−1)

ns

Unit normal vector, dimensionless

Nul

Local Nusselt number, dimensionless

Nu

Average Nusselt number, dimensionless

P

Pressure, dimensionless

Pr

Prandtl number, dimensionless

Re

Reynolds number, dimensionless

S

Surface area of the cylinder, m2

T

Temperature, K

T

Temperature difference, (= Tw − T), K

U

Velocity vector, dimensionless

U

Velocity at the inlet (ms−1)

List of Greek symbols

κ

Boltzmann constant (m2 kg s−2 K−1)

ρbf

Density of base fluid (kg m−3)

ρnp

Density of nanoparticle (kg m−3)

ρnf

Density of nanofluid (kg m−3)

µbf

Viscosity of base fluid (Pa s)

µnf

Viscosity of nanofluid (Pa s)

θ

Temperature, dimensionless

\(\phi\)

Volume fraction of nanoparticle, dimensionless

Subscripts

w

Condition at the cylinder surface

Condition corresponds to far away from the cylinder surface

bf

Base fluid

np

Nanoparticle

nf

Nanofluid

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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringIndian Institute of TechnologyRoparIndia

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