Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 135, Issue 2, pp 1269–1283 | Cite as

Application of response surface methodology in optimization of automotive air-conditioning performance operating with SiO2/PAG nanolubricant

  • A. A. M. Redhwan
  • W. H. AzmiEmail author
  • G. Najafi
  • M. Z. Sharif
  • N. N. M. Zawawi


The effect of compressor speed, initial refrigerant charge and volume concentrations of SiO2/PAG nanolubricant on the performance of automotive air-conditioning (AAC) system are investigated in this study. Response surface method (RSM) was used in designing the experimental work and is based on face composite design. The developed quadratic models from RSM were helpful to envisage the response parameters namely heat absorbs, compressor works, and coefficient of performance (COP) to identify the significant relations between the input factors and the responses. The results depicted that adding SiO2 nanoparticle into PAG lubricant will enhance the COP of AAC. Optimization of independent variables was performed using the desirability approach of the RSM with the goal of maximizing the heat absorb and COP, consequently, minimizing the compressor work. The results revealed that the optimal condition with a high desirability of 73.4% for the compressor speed of 900 rpm, refrigerant charge of 95 g and volume concentration of 0.07%. At this condition, the AAC system operated with 193.99, 23.28 kJ kg−1 and 8.27, respectively, for heat absorb, compressor work and COP. DoE based on RSM was capable of optimizing the significant parameters which affect AAC performance.


Nanolubricant Heat absorb Compressor work COP Response surface method 

List of symbols


Automotive air-conditioning


Analysis of variance


Central composite design


Coefficient of performance


Energy efficiency ratio


Face-centered design


Polyalkylene glycol


Heat absorb (kJ kg−1)


Resident air-conditioning


Revolution per minute


Response surface method


Compressor work (kJ kg−1)

Greek symbols


Volume concentration (%)


Density (kg m−1)



The authors are grateful to the Universiti Malaysia Pahang ( for financial supports given under RDU160395 and PGRS170374. The authors also thank to the research team from Automotive Engineering Centre (EAC) and Advanced Automotive Liquids Laboratory (A2LL), who provided insight and expertise that greatly assisted in the present research work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. A. M. Redhwan
    • 1
    • 3
  • W. H. Azmi
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • G. Najafi
    • 4
  • M. Z. Sharif
    • 1
  • N. N. M. Zawawi
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringUniversiti Malaysia PahangPekanMalaysia
  2. 2.Automotive Engineering Centre, Universiti Malaysia PahangPekanMalaysia
  3. 3.Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering TechnologyTATI University CollegeKemamanMalaysia
  4. 4.Tarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran

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