Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 135, Issue 3, pp 1899–1909 | Cite as

Integration of commercial CO2 capture plant with primary reformer stack of ammonia plant

  • Peyvand Valeh-e-Sheyda
  • Hamed RashidiEmail author
  • Farkhondeh Ghaderzadeh


The safety of primary reformers is essential to safe operation of large-scale petrochemical processes, especially when carbon dioxide is going to be recovered from an ammonia plant. In this study, a preliminary assessment is made to model an industrial stack as the stack gases are introduced into CO2 capture plant, during ammonia production. A CFD model was first developed in the absence of a commercial carbon dioxide recovery (CDR) unit to validate the model against industrial data under normal operation. At full capacity of the ammonia plan, the results provided by the CFD model match the measurement results well within about 3.87% margin of relative error. The calibrated model was then applied in combination with post-combustion, as part of the process, to verify the process safety constraints in reformer furnace. The effect of starting up and shutting down of CDR plant was explored in the event of emergency operation. From an operational view, in the event of startup or unplanned failure of the CO2 capture plant, the pressure fluctuations do not exceed the maximum allowable pressure of the firebox. Upon reaching the required operating conditions, both subsystems can be integrated operationally to continue production safely.


CO2 capture Post-combustion Ammonia plant Emergency Operation 

List of symbols


k − ε model constants


k − ε model constants


k − ε model constants


Time (hour)


Static pressure (Pa)


Source term


Temperature (K)


Time (s)


Velocity vector (m s−1)


x-coordinate (m)



Carbon dioxide recovery


Emergency shutdown system


Forced draft


Greenhouse gas


Induced draft


Kermanshah petrochemical industries company




Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes

Greek symbols


Density (kg m−3)


k − ε model dissipation energy


Dynamic viscosity (Pa s)


Turbulent viscosity (Pa s)

\(\overline{\overline{\tau }}\)

Shear stress tensor (Pa)

σk, σε

Turbulent Prandtl numbers for k − ε


Stress tensor


Turbulence kinetic energy






Authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of Kermanshah University of Technology for this research under Grant Number S/P/T/1115.


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemical Engineering DepartmentKermanshah University of TechnologyKermanshahIran
  2. 2.Kermanshah Petrochemical Industries CompanyKermanshahIran

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