Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 135, Issue 1, pp 671–683 | Cite as

Numerical evaluation on thermal–hydraulic characteristics of dilute heat-dissipating nanofluids flow in microchannels

Comparison of different models
  • Mostafa Keshavarz MoravejiEmail author
  • Ramtin Barzegarian
  • Mehdi Bahiraei
  • Matin Barzegarian
  • Alireza Aloueyan
  • Somchai Wongwises


The present work deals with numerical investigations on heat transfer characteristics and friction factor of aqueous CuO nanofluids flow in a set of four microchannels connected in parallel under laminar regime. For each single phase, volume of fluid, mixture and Eulerian models, a particular computer code is developed to carefully simulate this problem. The three-dimensional steady-state governing equations are solved through finite volume method. The primary aim of this study is to comparatively distinguish the most appropriate and accurate model for numerical studies of nanofluids in microchannels. The results are compared with one another and the data obtained from an experimental work. Regarding the results, an acceptable consistency is observed for all models with the experimental data. The current study truly demonstrates that applying single-phase model to simulate and evaluate the laminar flow of CuO–water nanofluid inside microchannels with uniform wall temperature is more modest, precise and reliable compared with two-phase models.


Laminar Microchannel Single-phase model Two-phase models Nanofluid CFD 

List of symbols


Heat transfer surface (m2)


Acceleration (m s−2)


Convective heat transfer coefficient (W m−2 K−1)


Drag coefficient


Nanoparticle diameter (m)


Specific heat (J Kg−1 K−1)


Thermal conductivity (W m−1 K−1)


Force (N)


Drag force (Pa m−1)


Virtual mass force (Pa m−1)


Friction factor


Drag function


Gravity acceleration (m s−2)


Volumetric heat transfer coefficient (W m−3 K−1)


Hydrodynamic diameter (m)


Liquid-particle heat transfer coefficient (W m−2 K−1)


Channel length (m)


Average Nusselt number (hD/k)


Pressure (pa)


Prandtl number (Cpμ/k)


Reynolds number (ρUD/μ)


Temperature (K)


Velocity (m s−1)


Knudsen number

Greek symbols


Fluid dynamic viscosity (kg m−1 s−1)


Mass density (kg m−3)


Volume concentration


Friction coefficient (kg m−3 s−1)


Thermal diffusivity (m2 s−1)


Viscosity (Pa s)











Base fluid












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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mostafa Keshavarz Moraveji
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ramtin Barzegarian
    • 2
  • Mehdi Bahiraei
    • 3
  • Matin Barzegarian
    • 4
  • Alireza Aloueyan
    • 5
  • Somchai Wongwises
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringAmirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic)TehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringKermanshah University of TechnologyKermanshahIran
  4. 4.Department of Mechanical Engineering, West Tehran BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  5. 5.Department of Mechanical Engineering, South Tehran BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  6. 6.Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Laboratory (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringKing Mongkut’s University of Technology ThonburiBangmod, BangkokThailand

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