Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 135, Issue 1, pp 393–418 | Cite as

An overview on the effect of ultrasonication duration on different properties of nanofluids

  • Asif AfzalEmail author
  • Ibrahim Nawfal
  • I. M. Mahbubul
  • Sunil Siddalingappa Kumbar


Preparation of nanofluid is of prime importance to obtain better thermal and physical properties. Different preparation parameters used in nanofluid preparation sometimes perform contrarily even if prepared with same nanoparticles and base fluid. Stability, thermal conductivity, and viscosity of the nanofluid are significantly affected by the cluster (agglomerate) size of nanoparticles in the base fluid which deteriorate thermal performance. In order to break the agglomerates and improve the dispersion of nanoparticles, ultrasonication is a more prevalent method. Nanofluids react differently for different sonication time and the reaction of the nanofluid with the change in sonication time varies for different nanofluids, which is dependent on various factors. In this regard, research works pertinent to the effect of ultrasonication on different properties of nanofluids are confined. In this paper, review of investigations carried out on experimentally evaluated ultrasonication effects on thermal properties and various physical properties of nanofluid. It is found that with an increased sonication time/energy, reduces the particle size and thus aids in obtaining a better dispersion leading to enhancement of stability, thermal conductivity and reducing viscosity. However, the longer ultrasonication duration was not found to be better in all cases where best performance was obtained for an optimum duration of ultrasonication.


Ultrasonication Nanoparticle Nanofluid Stability Surfactant Agglomeration Viscosity Particle size 





Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide


Carbon nanotube




Double walled


Ethylene glycol


Few walled


Field emission


Graphene nanopowder


Gum arabic




Magnesium hydroxide






Sodium dodecyl sulfate


Single walled


Scanning electron microscopy


Transmission electron microscope




Volume concentration percentage




X-ray powder diffraction


Zinc oxide


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringP. A. College of Engineering (Affiliated to Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belagavi)MangaluruIndia
  2. 2.Center of Research Excellence in Renewable Energy (CoRERE), Research InstituteKing Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM)DhahranSaudi Arabia

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