Effect of the residual water content in gels on solution combustion synthesis temperature
- 41 Downloads
The composition of gels and xerogels, as well as their transformation during heating and dehydration, determine the thermochemistry of solution combustion synthesis reactions. An improved descriptive thermodynamic model of combustion processes was formulated on the basis of the investigated formation of complex compounds of metal ions with organic fuel (glycine, citric acid, urea, and PVA) in nitrate solutions. The intensity of SCS reactions was found to depend on the strength of Ni2+–ligand complexes. The effect of heat loss during combustion on the ΔTmax value was analyzed for the model system Ni(NO3)2·nH2O–Fuel–H2O. It was found the heat loss occurs due to the presence of various amounts of structurally-bound water in gels and xerogels before the combustion.
Nitrate/fuel ratios affect the formation of a hypergolic mixture of gases.
The intensity of SCS reactions depends on the strength of Ni2+–ligand complexes.
Water in the xerogel has a great impact on the maximal thermal effect.
KeywordsSolution combustion synthesis Complex formation Metal nitrates NiO Thermochemical characteristics
The work was carried out in accordance with the state assignment for the Institute of Solid State Chemistry of the Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (theme No АААА-А19-119031890026-6) and the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation in the framework of Increase Competitiveness Program of NUST «MISiS» (№ К2-2019-007), implemented by a governmental decree dated 16th of March 2013, N 211.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 17.Chirnside R (1959) The chemical behavior of zirconium. D. van Nostrand Company Inc., LondonGoogle Scholar
- 24.Silbey RJ, Alberty RA, Bawendi MG (2004) Physical chemistry, 4th ed. Wiley, Hoboken, NJGoogle Scholar
- 25.Ashmead SD (2001) The chemistry of ferrous bis-glycinate chelate. Arch Latinoam Nutr 51:7–12Google Scholar
- 33.Megahed AS, Ibrahim OB, Adam AMA, Al-Majthoub MM (2014) Structure and properties of some metal-urea complexes obtained at low temperature: Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II) and Ni(II) ions. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 5:960–969Google Scholar
- 35.Rafat F (2014) Effect of different heating rate on the thermal decomposition of urea in an open reaction vessel. Arch Appl Sci Res 6:75–78Google Scholar
- 36.Ibrahim OB (2012) Complexes of urea with Mn (II), Fe (III), Co (II), and Cu (II) metal ions. Adv Appl Sci Res 3:3522–3539Google Scholar
- 37.Ibrahim OB, Refat MS, Salman M (2012) New complexes of urea with Hg(II) and Ni(II) metal ions. Eur Chem Bull 1:188–195Google Scholar
- 40.Cordeiro CF (2005) Vinyl acetate polymers. Van Nostrand’s Encyclopedia of Chemistry. https://doi.org/10.1002/0471740039.vec2622
- 41.Tamura S, Oono R (2015) The cluster size and change of water molecules in poly(vinyl alcohol) film by heating. J Fiber Sci Technol 71:284–290Google Scholar
- 45.Barenblatt G (1985) The mathematical theory of combustion and explosions. Springer, USGoogle Scholar
- 48.Gamsjäger H, Mompean FJ et al. (2005) Chemical thermodynamics of nickel. Issy-les-Moulineaux, FranceGoogle Scholar
- 49.Speight JG (2005) Lange’s handbook of chemistry, 16th ed. McGraw-Hill Education, New YorkGoogle Scholar