Facile preparation of Mn3O4/rGO hybrid nanocomposite by sol–gel in situ reduction method with enhanced energy storage performance for supercapacitor applications

  • M. Mohamed Ismail
  • S. Hemaanandhan
  • D. Mani
  • M. ArivanandhanEmail author
  • G. Anbalagan
  • R. Jayavel
Original Paper: Sol-gel and hybrid materials for energy, environment and building applications


Pure Mn3O4 and Mn3O4/rGO hybrid nanocomposites were synthesized by sol–gel based in situ reduction method. The structural properties of pure and nanocomposite materials were studied by XRD. The crystallite size of the Mn3O4 nanoparticle was reduced in the nanocomposite as observed by XRD analysis. SEM and TEM images depict the spherical morphology of pristine Mn3O4 nanoparticles and decoration of Mn3O4 nanoparticle on rGO sheets. Raman spectra confirm the formation of Mn3O4/rGO nanohybrid composites as the Ag mode of Mn3O4, D, and G bands of rGO were observed in the spectra. FTIR spectra confirm the presence of various functional groups of GO and the in situ reduction of GO into rGO. The electrochemical properties of the Mn3O4 and Mn3O4/rGO composites were investigated by cyclic voltammetry analysis using 1 M KOH as an electrolyte. The cyclic voltammetry results show the pseudocapacitance behavior of Mn3O4, whereas the hybrid nanocomposite exhibits the combined behaviors of pseudocapacitance and EDLC. The chronopotentiometry analysis demonstrated that the specific capacitance of Mn3O4/rGO nanocomposite (427 F g−1) was relatively higher than that of Mn3O4 (136 F g−1) at 1 A/g. The impact of KOH electrolyte over the specific capacitance of a electrode material was comparatively analyzed with different electrolytes. The enhancement in the specific capacitance of the nanohybrid composite was attributed due to the strong electrode–electrolyte interaction of hybrid electrode material and synergetic effect of Mn3O4 and rGO.


  • Mn3O4/rGO nanocomposite was synthesized by sol–gel based in-situ reduction method.

  • Crystallite size of the Mn3O4 was reduced consistently while adding rGO 2 and 5%.

  • TEM image confirms the spherical morphology of the Mn3O4 nanoparticle (~10 nm) and Raman spectroscopy results confirm the formation of composites.

  • Specific capacitance of the Mn3O4/rGO nanocomposite (427 F g−1) was higher than Mn3O4 (136 F g−1).

  • High specific capacitance of composite is due to the synergetic effect of Mn3O4/rGO.


Nanocomposite In situ reduction Sol–gel X-ray diffraction Raman spectroscopy Supercapacitor 



The work was financially supported by DST-Nanomission under M.Tech Program (SR/NM/PG-02/2015), DST-SERB under ECR award (ECR/2015/000575), and DST-SERB under EMR (EMR/2016/007550). The author (SH) thank DST nanomission for the MTech, student Fellowship (2015–2017). The author (MMI) thankful to Anna University for the Anna Centenary Research Fellowship (CRF/ACRF/2018/AR1/50).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Nanoscience and TechnologyAnna UniversityChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Nuclear PhysicsUniversity of MadrasChennaiIndia

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