Giant dielectric permittivity of CaCu3Ti4O12 via a green solution-egg white method

  • Jakkree Boonlakhorn
  • Narong Chanlek
  • Prasit ThongbaiEmail author
Original Paper: Sol–gel and hybrid materials for dielectric, electronic, magnetic and ferroelectric applications


CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics were prepared using a green solution-egg white method. A main phase of CaCu3Ti4O12 is observed in the obtained powder and all sintered ceramics. The microstructure of all ceramics is studied. Their grain sizes are found to be in the range of 4–7 µm. Giant dielectric properties with low dielectric loss (tanδ ∼ 0.07) and large dielectric permittivity (ε′ ∼ 7000) are achieved in the sintered CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramic. An impedance spectroscopy analysis confirms a heterogeneous microstructure in sintered CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics, consisting of highly resistive grain boundaries and semiconducting grains. Mixed Cu3+/Cu2+/Cu+ and Ti4+/Ti3+ phases are detected using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, confirming the presence of semiconducting grains.


  • CaCu3Ti4O12 was successfully prepared using a green solution-egg white method.

  • High ε′ ∼ 7000 with low tanδ ∼ 0.07 were achieved.

  • Mixed Cu3+/Cu2+/Cu+ and Ti4+/Ti3+ phases are detected using XPS technique.


CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) Green solution Impedance spectroscopy Loss tangent Giant/colossal dielectric permittivity 



This work was financially supported by the Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Khon Kaen University, and the Thailand Research Fund (TRF) [Grant No. BRG6180003] and the National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT) (Grant Number 600007). This work was partially supported by the Research Network NANOTEC (RNN) program of the National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), NSTDA, Ministry of Science and Technology and Khon Kaen University, Thailand. J.B. would like to thank the Graduate School, Khon Kaen University (Grant No. 581T211) for his Ph.D. scholarship.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jakkree Boonlakhorn
    • 1
  • Narong Chanlek
    • 2
  • Prasit Thongbai
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Physics, Faculty of ScienceKhon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand
  2. 2.Synchrotron Light Research Institute (Public Organization)111 University Avenue, Muang DistrictNakhon RatchasimaThailand
  3. 3.Institute of Nanomaterials Research and Innovation for Energy (IN–RIE)NANOTEC–KKU RNN on Nanomaterials Research and Innovation for Energy, Khon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand

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