MOF-derived the direct Z-scheme g-C3N4/TiO2 with enhanced visible photocatalytic activity

  • Jian Jia
  • Yanmin WangEmail author
  • Meiling Xu
  • Mei-li Qi
  • Yanling Wu
  • Gang Zhao
Original Paper: Nano-structured materials (particles, fibers, colloids, composites, etc.)


In order to produce a photocatalyst with increased visible photocatalytic ability, MIL-125 and melamine were selected as raw materials to prepare Z-scheme g-C3N4/TiO2 heterojunction photocatalyst using a simple calcination method. TEM, HRTEM, XRD, FTIR, EDS, and UV–vis absorption spectra were employed to investigate the prepared specimens. The visible-light catalytic property was examined via the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The recombination and separation activity of electrons and holes (h+/e) were explored by the transient photocurrent response (TPR) and PL spectra. In contrast with plain TiO2 and g-C3N4, the g-C3N4/TiO2 photocatalyst exhibited increased photocatalytic activities when exposed to visible-light irradiation. With the addition of g-C3N4 at 8 wt%, the Z-scheme g-C3N4/TiO2 heterojunction performed best in the photocatalytic test toward MB dye at a degradation rate of 97.7%. Under visible-light irradiation, the Z-scheme heterojunction between g-C3N4 and TiO2 enables the high-efficient segregation of photogenic electrons and holes (h+/e), leading to the increased photocatalytic ability. Meanwhile, the large specific surface area of the composite photocatalyst is conducive to the adsorption of the contaminant on the catalyst surface, which has an important effect on the catalytic reaction.

The direct Z-scheme g-C3N4/TiO2 was obtained by an in-situ heat treatment process with MIL-125 (Ti) and melamine as raw materials. The g-C3N4/TiO2 photocatalyst with 8 wt% g-C3N4 exhibited the optimal degradation efficiency, which was due to the high separation efficiency of photogenic electrons and holes (h+/e) of the Z-scheme heterojunction.


  • MOF-derived direct Z-scheme g-C3N4/TiO2 heterojunction photocatalyst was prepared.

  • The g-C3N4/TiO2 heterojunction photocatalyst with an amount of 8 wt% g-C3N4 has the best degradation efficiency.


Z-scheme g-C3N4/TiO2 heterojunction Porous MIL-125 MOFs Photocatalytic activity Visible-light photocatalysis 



The research is supported by Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (Grant No. ZR2018BEM019, ZR2017LEM006), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51802117), Youth Science Foundation of Shandong Province (Grant No. BS2011CL028) and the Shandong Jiaotong University “Climbing” Research Innovation Team Program. We acknowledge TopEdit LLC for linguistic editing and proofreading during the preparation of this manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jian Jia
    • 1
  • Yanmin Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Meiling Xu
    • 2
  • Mei-li Qi
    • 1
  • Yanling Wu
    • 1
  • Gang Zhao
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Transportation and Civil engineeringShandong Jiaotong UniversityJinanChina
  2. 2.School of Material Science and EngineeringUniversity of JinanJinanChina
  3. 3.School of Physics and TechnologyUniversity of JinanJinanChina

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