Microstructural and electrical properties evaluation of lead doped tin sulfide thin films

  • S. Sebastian
  • I. Kulandaisamy
  • S. Valanarasu
  • I. S. Yahia
  • Hyun-Seok KimEmail author
  • Dhanasekaran VikramanEmail author
Original Paper: Functional coatings, thin films and membranes including deposition techniques


A low cost and simple spray methodology with nebulizer was employed to fabricate lead doped tin sulfide (SnS:Pb) thin films. Different doping weight percentages (1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 wt%) were used to prepare SnS:Pb thin films on glass substrates with 350 °C substrate temperature, and we subsequently investigated Pb element influence on microstructural, electrical, and optical properties. Structural studies using X-ray diffraction confirmed orthorhombic crystal structure with (111) plane preferred orientation and atomic force micrographs identified significant variation due to the different Pb wt%. Photoluminescence showed a strong band edge emission peak at 761 nm, with optical band gaps at 1.90–1.60 eV over the Pb dopant concentrations. Hall effect showed low electrical resistivity (3.01 × 10−2 Ω cm), high carrier concentration (~1.01 × 1019 cm−3), and high Hall mobility (~20.5 cm2 V−1 s−1) for 7 wt%, which is suitable to fabricate solar cell devices. The p–n junction properties were analyzed under dark and illumination conditions by current–voltage characteristics using the FTO/n-CdS/p-SnS:Pb/Al structure.


  • Simple spray pyrolysis technique was used to deposit Pb doped tin sulfide films.

  • Structural and topographical variations plausibly explored by XRD and AFM.

  • Low optical band gap (1.60 eV) and their near band edge PL emission were proved.

  • p–n junction (n-CdS/p-SnS:Pb) properties assessed under dark and illumination.


SnS:Pb Thin film XRD Microstructural Resistivity p–n junction 



This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (No. 2017R1D1A1A09000823). One of the authors, ISY, expresses his appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Khalid University for funding this work through research groups program under grant number R.G.P.2/9/40.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.PG & Research Department of PhysicsArul Anandar College, KarumathurMaduraiIndia
  2. 2.Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronics Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of ScienceKing Khalid UniversityAbhaSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Nanoscience Laboratory for Environmental and Bio-medical Applications (NLEBA), Physics Department, Faculty of EducationAin Shams University, RoxyCairoEgypt
  4. 4.Division of Electronics and Electrical EngineeringDongguk University-SeoulSeoulRepublic of Korea

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