Advertisement

Morphological and opto-electrical studies of newly decorated nano organo-lead halide-based perovskite photovoltaics

  • Abhishek Dhar
  • Mehul Khimani
  • Rohit L. VekariyaEmail author
Original Paper: Devices based on sol-gel or hybrid materials
  • 19 Downloads

Abstract

In a world where conventional sources of energy are fast depleting, the quest for alternative energy sources may hold the key for the survival of humanity. In the present work, we have tried to generate energy from perovskite-based solar cells. In order to bring this idea into fruition, a newly developed nano perovskite material n-propyl ammonium lead chloride (C3H7NH3+PbCl3) was chosen and fabricated via co-precipitation pathway. Here n-propyl amine (n-C3H7NH2), and hydrochloric acid and aqueous solution of Pb(CH3COO)23H2O were used as the starting precursors. Acetic acid was added to the solution at the final stage to maintain the optimum pH of the reaction medium and then the solution was gradually concentrated and cooled down to room temperature. Later, the synthesized material was layered on TiO2 film through spin-coating to generate the targeted device. The device then underwent systematic analysis using XRD, SEM, UV and photo conversion to get a transparent idea regarding its structural, electrical and optical properties. When experimentally applied, this newly developed perovskite-based solar cell has generated appreciable amount of energy conversion efficiency (η) and it is around 6.01%. Thus, it can be concluded that this material is an effective building block of efficient solar cells. This technology can be tried in large scale as a source of nonconventional energy in the upcoming days.

Highlights

  • A novel nano perovskite material n-propyl ammonium lead chloride (C3H7NH3+PbCl3) was developed by co-precipitation method to fabricate a solar cell device.

  • The device then underwent systematic analysis using XRD, SEM, UV and photo conversion to get a transparent idea regarding its structural, electrical and optical properties.

  • The band gap of pure n-C3H7NH3PbCl3 is calculated to be 1.72 eV, which is good enough to show good photo-efficiency and that of the material on TiO2 surface is 1.50 eV. It proves that TiO2 surface coating beneath the perovskite material makes a change in its flat band potential and makes the material more photo-effective.

  • The newly decorated perovskite-based solar cell has generated appreciable amount (around 6.01 %) of energy conversion efficiency (η).

Keywords

Perovskite photovoltaics Alternative energy Band-gap Photo-current 

Notes

Acknowledgements

RLV is thankful to Ton Duc Thang University (TDTU-DEMASTED) for financial support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Kazim S, Nazeeruddin MK, Gratzel M, Ahmad S (2014) Perovskite as light harvester: a game changer in photovoltaics. Angew Chem Int Ed 53:2812–2824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jiandong F, Baohua J, Min G (2014) Perovskite-based low-cost and high-efficiency hybrid halide solar cells. Photonics Res 2:111–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dhar A, Dey A, Maiti P, Paul PK, Roy S, Paul S, Vekariya RL (2018) Fabrication and characterization of next generation nano-structured organo-lead halide-based perovskite solar cell. Ionics 24:1227–1233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vekariya RL, Vaghasiya JV, Dhar A (2017) Coumarin based sensitizers with ortho-halides substituted phenylene spacer for dye sensitized solar cells. Org Electron 48:291–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dhar A, Kumar NS, Paul PK, Roy S, Vekariya RL (2018) Influence of tagging thiophene bridge unit on optical and electrochemical properties of coumarin based dyes for DSSCs with theoretical insight. Org Electron 53:280–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vekariya RL, Dhar A, Lunagariya J (2018) Doping effect of aminopyridine analogous in supramolecular quasi-solid polymer electrolyte for DSSCs: improvement in ionic diffusion leading to superior efficiency. Ionics 24:1235–1242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vekariya RL, Dhar A, Paul PK, Roy S (2018) An overview of engineered porous material for energy applications: a mini-review. Ionics 24:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guo F, Liu X, Ding Y, Kong F, Chen W, Zhou L, Dai S (2016) Broad spectral-response organic D–A–π–A sensitizer with pyridine-diketopyrrolopyrrole unit for dye-sensitized solar cells. RSC Adv 6:13433–13441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lunagariya J, Dhar A, Vekariya RL (2017) Efficient esterification of n-butanol with acetic acid catalyzed by the Brönsted acidic ionic liquids: influence of acidity. RSC Adv 7:5412–5420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brennan LJ, Barwich ST, Satti A, Faure A, Gunko YK (2013) Graphene–ionic liquid electrolytes for dye sensitised solar cells. J Mater Chem A 1:8379–8384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lim SP, Lim YS, Pandikumar A, Lim HN, Ng YN, Ramaraj R, Sheng Bien DC, Abou-Zied OK, Huang NM (2017) Gold–silver@TiO2 nanocomposite-modified plasmonic photoanodes for higher efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells. Phys Chem Chem Phys 19:1395–1407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Maragani R, Misra R, Roy MS, Singh MK, Sharma GD (2017) (D–π–A)2–π–D–A type ferrocenyl bisthiazole linked triphenylamine based molecular systems for DSSC: synthesis, experimental and theoretical performance studies. Phys Chem Chem Phys 19:8925–8933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chander N, Khan AF, Komarala VK (2015) Improved stability and enhanced efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells by using europium doped yttrium vanadate down-shifting nanophosphor. RSC Adv 5:66057–66066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gao P, Gratzel M, Nazeeruddin MK (2014) Organohalide lead perovskites for photovoltaic applications. Energy Environ Sci 7:2448–2463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Xiao Z, Dong Q, Bi C, Shao Y, Yuan Y, Huang J (2014) Solvent annealing of perovskite-induced crystal growth for photovoltaic-device efficiency enhancement. Adv Mater 26:6503–6509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yang M, Zhang T, Schulz P, Li Z, Li G, Kim DH, Guo N, Berry JJ, Zhu K, Zhao Y (2016) Facile fabrication of large-grain CH3NH3PbI3−xBrx films for high-efficiency solar cells via CH3NH3Br-selective Ostwald ripening. Nat Commun 7:12305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wei Z, Chen H, Yan K, Yang S (2014) Inkjet printing and instant chemical transformation of a CH3NH3PbI3/nanocarbon electrode and interface for planar perovskite solar cells. Angew Chem Int Ed 53:13239–13243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    You J, Hong Z, Yang Y, Chen Q, Cai M, Song TB, Chen CC, Lu S, Liu Y, Zhou H, Yang Y (2014) Low-temperature solution-processed perovskite solar cells with high efficiency and flexibility. ACS Nano 8:1674–1680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Docampo P, Ball JM, Darwich M, Eperon GE, Snaith HJ (2013) Efficient organometal trihalide perovskite planar-hetero junction solar cells on flexible polymer substrates. Nat Commun 4:2761–2766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Li Y, Zhang Y, Ma Y, Ren T, Wang L, Zhang J (2017) Effects of π-conjugation on electrochemical properties within hole-transporting materials for perovskite solar cells from first principle and molecular dynamics. Org Electron 43:96–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Curiel D, Montoya MM, Hummert M, Riede M, Leo K (2015) Doped-carbazolocarbazoles as hole transporting materials in small molecule solar cells with different architectures. Org Electron 17:28–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lotsch BV (2014) New light on an old story: perovskites go solar. Angew Chem Int Ed 53:635–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stranks SD, Eperon GE, Grancini G, Menelaou C, Alcocer MJP, Leijtens T, Herz LM, Petrozza A, Snaith HJ (2013) Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber. Science 342:341–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Xing G, Mathews N, Sun S, Lim SS, Lam YM, Gratzel M, Mhaisalkar S, Sum TC (2013) Long-range balanced electron- and hole-transport lengths in organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbI3. Science 342:344–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wehrenfennig C, Eperon GE, Johnston MB, Snaith HJ, Herz LM (2014) High charge carrier mobilities and lifetimes in organolead trihalide perovskites. Adv Mater 26:1584–1589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Burschka J, Pellet N, Moon SJ, Humphry-Baker R, Gao P, Nazeeruddin MK, Gratzel M (2013) Nature 499:316–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Green MA, Baillie AH, Snaith HJ (2014) Perovskite solar cells with a planar heterojunction structure prepared using room-temperature solution processing techniques. Nat Photonics 8:133–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jeon NJ, Noh JH, YangWS, Kim YC, Ryu S, Seo J, Seok SI (2015) Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high performance solar cells. Nature 517:476–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kim HS, Lee CR, Im JH, Lee KB, Moehl T, Marchioro A, Moon SJ, Baker RH, Yum JH, Moser JE, Gratzel M, Park NG (2012) Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-aolid-statesubmicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%. Sci Rep 2:591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lee MM, Teuscher J, Miyasaka T, Murakami TN, Snaith HJ (2012) Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites. Science 338:643–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Borriello I, Cantele G, Ninno D (2008) Ab initio investigation of hybrid organic inorganic perovskites based on tin halides. Phys Rev B 77:235214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kagan CR, Mitzi DB, Dimitrakopoulos CD (1999) Organic–inorganic hybrid materials as semiconducting channels in thin-film field-effect transistors. Science 286:945–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Liang PW, Liao CY, Chueh CC, Zuo F, Williams ST, Xin XK, Lin J, Jen AK (2014) Additive enhanced crystallization of solution processed perovskite for highly efficient planar-hetero junction solar cells. Adv Mater 26:3748–3754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zhang Q, Liu X (2012) Dye-sensitized solar cell goes solid. Small 8:3711–3713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mitzi DB (1999) Synthesis, structure, and properties of organic-inorganic perovskites and related materials. Prog Inorg Chem 48:1–121Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wang JTW, Ball JM, Barea EM, Abate A, Alexander-Webber JA, Huang J, Saliba M, Mora-Sero IN, Bisquert J, Snaith HJ (2014) Low-temperature processed electron collection layers of Graphene/TiO2 nanocomposites in thin film perovskite solar cells. Nano Lett 14:724–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chiarella F, Zappettini A, Licci F, Borriello I, Cantele G, Ninno D, Cassinese A, Vaglio R (2008) Combined experimental and theoretical investigation of optical, structural and electronic properties of CH3NH3SnX3 thin films (X = Cl, Br). Phys Rev B 77:0451294-1–0451294-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yang S, Fu W, Zhang Z, Chen H, Zhe-Li C (2017) Recent advances in perovskite solar cells: efficiency, stability and lead-free perovskite. J Mater Chem A 5:11462–11482CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abhishek Dhar
    • 1
  • Mehul Khimani
    • 2
  • Rohit L. Vekariya
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Instrumentation ScienceJadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia
  2. 2.School of ScienceP P Savani UniversitySuratIndia
  3. 3.Department for Management of Science and Technology DevelopmentTon Duc Thang UniversityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam
  4. 4.Faculty of Applied SciencesTon Duc Thang UniversityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam

Personalised recommendations