Advertisement

Synthesis of electrospun 1D-photoanode nanocomposite based on electrospinning followed by hydrothermal treatment for highly efficient liquid-junction photovoltaic devices

  • Ibrahim M. A. Mohamed
  • Van-Duong Dao
  • Changkun LiuEmail author
  • Nasser A. M. Barakat
  • Ho-Suk Choi
Original Paper:Sol-gel and hybrid materials for energy, environment and building applications
  • 36 Downloads

Abstract

Electrospinning has received much interest as a versatile fabrication technique for 1D (one-dimension) nanomaterials. This study introduces a novel 1D nanomaterial, N&GO@Zr/TiO2, which was synthesized through electrospinning followed by hydrothermal methods and applied as a photoanode in low-cost dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The prepared material was characterized via FESEM, EDX mapping, XRD, and XPS analyses. After the hydrothermal step, there was an enhancement in the crystallinity, which is attributed to the high growth rate of the anatase crystallites. Then, the performance of DSCs incorporating the photoanodes was investigated by JV curves, IPCE, dye loading, and EIS, and a high photoresponse efficiency of 5.3% was obtained, which is higher than the efficiencies for cells based on nitrogen-doped Zr/TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) (5.0%) and GO@Zr/TiO2 NFs (5.1%). Besides the crystallinity enhancement, Zr doping can affect the electronic properties of the pristine TiO2 via the replacement of Ti4+ by Zr4+, which has different size and electronegativity. Hence, this composite was used as a substrate for the photoanode after GO&N doping. GO can improve the electron transport via increasing the photoanode conductivity, which is demonstrated via impedance studies, and N can increase the current produced via the enhancement of dye loading, which is studied through UV–visible spectroscopy. This study introduces the preparation of the novel nanocomposites toward highly efficient low-cost liquid-junction photovoltaics.

Highlights

  • Novel 1D-nanomaterial N&GO@Zr/TiO2 was synthesized through electrospinning followed by hydrothermal methods.

  • N&GO@Zr/TiO2 nanocomposite is introduced for improving photovoltaic performance.

  • An efficiency of 5.25% was obtained with the device using the developed working electrode.

  • The photovoltaic device using the synthesized material shows higher electrical conductivity and long electron lifetime.

Keywords

Nanocomposites Solar energy materials Photoanode Electrospinning 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21777105) and Shenzhen Science and Technology Foundations (JCYJ20180507182040308; JCYJ20170818101137960). This research is also funded by the Vietnam National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED) under grant number 103.02-2018.27.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Sugathan V, John E, Sudhakar K (2015) Recent improvements in dye sensitized solar cells: a review. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev 52:54–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gong J, Sumathy K, Qiao Q, Zhou Z (2017) Review on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs): advanced techniques and research trends. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev 68:234–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Prasad S, Durairaj D, AlSalhi MS, Theerthagiri J, Arunachalam P, Durai G (2018) Fabrication of cost-effective dye-sensitized solar cells using sheet-like CoS2 films and phthaloylchitosan-based gel–polymer electrolyte. Energies 11(2):281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Theerthagiri J, Senthil R, Arunachalam P, Madhavan J, Buraidah M, Santhanam A, Arof A (2017) Synthesis of various carbon incorporated flower-like MoS2 microspheres as counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. J Solid State Electrochem 21(2):581–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Prasad S, Durai G, Devaraj D, AlSalhi MS, Theerthagiri J, Arunachalam P, Gurulakshmi M, Raghavender M, Kuppusami P (2018) 3D nanorhombus nickel nitride as stable and cost-effective counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells and supercapacitor applications. RSC Adv 8(16):8828–8835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Senthil RA, Theerthagiri J, Madhavan J, Murugan K, Arunachalam P, Arof AK (2016) Enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on organic dopant incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO polymer blend electrolyte with g-C3N4/TiO2 photoanode. J Solid State Chem 242:199–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sriharan N, Muthukumarasamy N, Senthil T, Kang M (2018) Preparation of dye-sensitized solar cells using template free TiO2 nanotube arrays for enhanced power conversion. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 85(3):743–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gonçalves LM, de Zea Bermudez V, Ribeiro HA, Mendes AM (2008) Dye-sensitized solar cells: a safe bet for the future. Energy Environ Sci 1(6):655–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    De Marco L, Calestani D, Qualtieri A, Giannuzzi R, Manca M, Ferro P, Gigli G, Listorti A, Mosca R (2017) Single crystal mesoporous ZnO platelets as efficient photoanodes for sensitized solar cells. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 168:227–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pereira M, Lima F, Silva C, Freire P, Vasconcelos I (2017) Structural, morphological and optical properties of SnO2 nanoparticles obtained by a proteic sol–gel method and their application in dye-sensitized solar cells. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 84(1):206–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dao V-D, Larina LL, Tran QC, Bui V-T, Nguyen V-T, Pham T-D, Mohamed IMA, Barakat NAM, Huy BT, Choi H-S (2017) Evaluation of Pt-based alloy/graphene nanohybrid electrocatalysts for triiodide reduction in photovoltaics. Carbon 116:294–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zheng Y-Z, Tao X, Zhang J-W, Lai X-S, Li N (2018) Plasmonic enhancement of light-harvesting efficiency in tandem dye-sensitized solar cells using multiplexed gold core/silica shell nanorods. J Power Sources 376:26–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kavan L, Saygili Y, Freitag M, Zakeeruddin SM, Hagfeldt A, Grätzel M (2017) Electrochemical properties of Cu (II/I)-based redox mediators for dye-sensitized solar cells. Electrochim Acta 227:194–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fan L, Jennings JR, Zakeeruddin SM, Grätzel M, Wang Q (2017) Redox catalysis for improved counter‐electrode kinetics in dye‐sensitized solar cells. ChemElectroChem 4(6):1356–1361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ahmad MS, Pandey A, Rahim NA (2017) Advancements in the development of TiO2 photoanodes and its fabrication methods for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. A review. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev 77:89–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mohamed IM, Dao V-D, Yasin AS, Choi H-S, Khalil K, Barakat NA (2017) Facile synthesis of GO@ SnO2/TiO2 nanofibers and their behavior in photovoltaics. J Colloid Interface Sci 490:303–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mohamed IMA, Dao V-D, Yasin AS, Mousa HM, Mohamed HO, Choi H-S, Hassan MK, Barakat NAM (2016) Nitrogen-doped & SnO2-incoportaed TiO2 nanofibers as novel and effective photoanode for enhanced efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells. Chem Eng J 304:48–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Macdonald TJ, Tune DD, Dewi MR, Gibson CT, Shapter JG, Nann T (2015) A TiO2 nanofiber-carbon nanotube-composite photoanode for improved efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells. ChemSusChem 8(20):3396–3400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nikam PR, Baviskar PK, Majumder S, Sali JV, Sankapal BR (2018) SILAR controlled CdSe nanoparticles sensitized ZnO nanorods photoanode for solar cell application: electrolyte effect. J Colloid Interface Sci 524:148–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mohamed IMA, Dao V-D, Yasin AS, Barakat NAM, Choi H-S (2017) Design of an efficient photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells using electrospun one-dimensional GO/N-doped nanocomposite SnO2/TiO2. Appl Surf Sci 400:355–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kang SH, Choi SH, Kang MS, Kim JY, Kim HS, Hyeon T, Sung YE (2008) Nanorod-based dye-sensitized solar cells with improved charge collection efficiency. Adv Mater 20(1):54–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mohamed IMA, Yasin AS, Barakat NAM, Song SA, Lee HE, Kim SS (2018) Electrocatalytic behavior of a nanocomposite of Ni/Pd supported by carbonized PVA nanofibers towards formic acid, ethanol and urea oxidation: a physicochemical and electro-analysis study. Appl Surf Sci 435:122–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mohamed IMA, Motlak M, Fouad H, Barakat NAM (2016) Cobalt/chromium nanoparticles-incorporated carbon nanofibers as effective nonprecious catalyst for methanol electrooxidation in alkaline medium. Nano 11(05):1650049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ye M, Wen X, Wang M, Iocozzia J, Zhang N, Lin C, Lin Z (2015) Recent advances in dye-sensitized solar cells: from photoanodes, sensitizers and electrolytes to counter electrodes. Mater Today 18(3):155–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mohamed IM, Dao V-D, Yasin AS, Choi H-S, Barakat NA (2016) Synthesis of novel SnO2@ TiO2 nanofibers as an efficient photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells. Int J Hydrog Energy 41(25):10578–10589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jiao S, Lian G, Jing L, Xu Z, Wang Q, Cui D, Wong C-P (2018) Sn-doped rutile TiO2 hollow nanocrystals with enhanced lithium-ion batteries performance. ACS Omega 3(1):1329–1337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Belver C, Bedia J, Rodríguez JJ (2017) Zr-doped TiO2 supported on delaminated clay materials for solar photocatalytic treatment of emerging pollutants. J Hazard Mater 322:233–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shaddad MN, Ghanem MA, Al-Mayouf AM, Gimenez S, Bisquert J, Herraiz-Cardona I (2016) Cooperative catalytic effect of ZrO2 and α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles on BiVO4 photoanodes for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting. ChemSusChem 9(19):2779–2783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Roose B, Pathak S, Steiner U (2015) Doping of TiO2 for sensitized solar cells. Chem Soc Rev 44(22):8326–8349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Huang C, Ding Y, Chen Y, Li P, Zhu S, Shen S (2017) Highly efficient Zr doped-TiO2/glass fiber photocatalyst and its performance in formaldehyde removal under visible light. J Environ Sci 60:61–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yasin AS, Mohamed IM, Mousa HM, Park CH, Kim CS (2018) Facile synthesis of TiO2/ZrO2 nanofibers/nitrogen co-doped activated carbon to enhance the desalination and bacterial inactivation via capacitive deionization. Sci Rep 8(1):541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mohamed IMA, Dao V-D, Barakat NAM, Yasin AS, Yousef A, Choi H-S (2016) Efficiency enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells by use of ZrO2-doped TiO2 nanofibers photoanode. J Colloid Interface Sci 476:9–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kusumawati Y, Martoprawiro M, Pauporté T (2014) Effects of graphene in graphene/TiO2 composite films applied to solar cell photoelectrode. J Phys Chem C 118(19):9974–9981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Guo W, Shen Y, Wu L, Gao Y, Ma T (2011) Effect of N dopant amount on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on N-doped TiO2 electrodes. J Phys Chem C 115(43):21494–21499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Parra R, Góes M, Castro M, Longo E, Bueno PR, Varela JA (2007) Reaction pathway to the synthesis of anatase via the chemical modification of titanium isopropoxide with acetic acid. Chem Mater 20(1):143–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mahmoud MS, Akhtar MS, Mohamed IM, Hamdan R, Dakka YA, Barakat NA (2018) Demonstrated photons to electron activity of S-doped TiO2 nanofibers as photoanode in the DSSC. Mater Lett 225:77–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Barakat NA, Motlak M (2014) CoxNiy-decorated graphene as novel, stable and super effective non-precious electro-catalyst for methanol oxidation. Appl Catal B 154:221–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lee S-W, Ahn K-S, Zhu K, Neale NR, Frank AJ (2012) Effects of TiCl4 treatment of nanoporous TiO2 films on morphology, light harvesting, and charge-carrier dynamics in dye-sensitized solar cells. J Phys Chem C 116(40):21285–21290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Asemi M, Maleki S, Ghanaatshoar M (2017) Cr-doped TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells with Cr-doped TiO2 blocking layer. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 81(3):645–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ismail AA, Geioushy RA, Bouzid H, Al-Sayari SA, Al-Hajry A, Bahnemann DW (2013) TiO2 decoration of graphene layers for highly efficient photocatalyst: impact of calcination at different gas atmosphere on photocatalytic efficiency. Appl Catal B 129:62–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ahmed S (2017) Effects of annealing temperature and dopant concentration on the structure, optical, and magnetic properties of Cu-doped ZnO nanopowders. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 28(4):3733–3739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mohamed IM, Dao V-D, Yasin AS, Mousa HM, Yassin MA, Khan MY, Choi H-S, Barakat NA (2017) Physicochemical and photo-electrochemical characterization of novel N-doped nanocomposite ZrO2/TiO2 photoanode towards technology of dye-sensitized solar cells. Mater Charact 127:357–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Low FW, Lai CW, Hamid SBA (2017) Surface modification of reduced graphene oxide film by Ti ion implantation technique for high dye-sensitized solar cells performance. Ceram Int 43(1):625–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Shaddad MN, Cardenas-Morcoso D, Arunachalam P, Garcia-Tecedor M, Ghanem MA, Bisquert J, Al-Mayouf A, Gimenez S (2018) Enhancing the optical absorption and interfacial properties of BiVO4 with Ag3PO4 nanoparticles for efficient water splitting. J Phys Chem C 122(22):11608–11615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mohamed IM, Dao V-D, Yasin AS, Yassin MA, Barakat NA, Choi H-S (2017) Synthesis of novel ZrO2&GO@TiO2 nanocomposite as an efficient photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells. Superlattices Microstruct 102:235–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kim S-B, Park J-Y, Kim C-S, Okuyama K, Lee S-E, Jang H-D, Kim T-O (2015) Effects of graphene in dye-sensitized solar cells based on nitrogen-doped TiO2 composite. J Phys Chem C 119(29):16552–16559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Motlak M, Barakat NA, Akhtar MS, Hamza A, Yousef A, Fouad H, Yang O-B (2015) Influence of GO incorporation in TiO2 nanofibers on the electrode efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells. Ceram Int 41(1):1205–1212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Li F, Wang G, Jiao Y, Li J, Xie S (2014) Efficiency enhancement of ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cell by hollow TiO2 nanofibers. J Alloys Compd 611:19–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Dao V-D, Choi H-S (2016) Highly-efficient plasmon-enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells created by means of dry plasma reduction. Nanomaterials 6(4):70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wu W-Q, Xu Y-F, Su C-Y, Kuang D-B (2014) Ultra-long anatase TiO2 nanowire arrays with multi-layered configuration on FTO glass for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells. Energy Environ Sci 7(2):644–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ibrahim M. A. Mohamed
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Van-Duong Dao
    • 4
    • 5
  • Changkun Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Nasser A. M. Barakat
    • 6
  • Ho-Suk Choi
    • 7
  1. 1.College of Chemistry and Environmental EngineeringShenzhen UniversityShenzhenPR China
  2. 2.Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecological RemediationShenzhen UniversityShenzhenPR China
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceSohag UniversitySohagEgypt
  4. 4.Faculty of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental EngineeringPhenikaa UniversityHanoiVietnam
  5. 5.Phenikaa Research and Technology Institute (PRATI)A&A Green Phoenix GroupHanoiVietnam
  6. 6.Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringEl-Minia UniversityEl-MiniaEgypt
  7. 7.Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied ChemistryChungnam National UniversityDaejeonSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations