Ion exchange of zeolite coatings for adsorption heat pump applications

  • Melkon TatlierEmail author
  • Çiğdem Atalay-Oral
Original Paper: Sol-gel and hybrid materials for energy, environment and building applications


Coatings of NaA and NaX zeolites with various thicknesses were grown by direct crystallization on stainless steel plates. As a next step, ion exchange was applied to obtain the Li forms of the coatings. The materials obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), thermal gravimetry (TG), and N2 adsorption. The stabilities of the coatings in the ion exchange process were also determined. Li+ ions were observed to be readily exchanged with Na+ ions in zeolite coatings of various thicknesses but the percentage of exchange did not attain 100%. Favorable ion exchange conditions for obtaining both zeolite LiNaA and LiNaX coatings were determined. After Li exchange, the surface area of zeolite X increased by about 56% while the water capacities of zeolites X and A were enhanced by about 15 and 14%, respectively, for the conditions investigated. The ion exchange process resulted in some detachment from the coatings, which increased with enhanced coating thickness. Significant improvement was obtained in coating stability by using plates with roughened surfaces. Zeolite coatings in Li form may improve the performances of adsorption heat pumps, provided that relatively thick coatings remain stable to a desired extent during ion exchange.


  • Li+ ions may be exchanged with Na+ ions in zeolite coatings of various thicknesses.

  • After Li exchange, the surface area of zeolite X increased by about 56%.

  • Water capacities of zeolites X and A increased by about 15 and 14%, respectively.

  • The coatings detached notably during ion exchange.

  • Coating stability for ion exchange could be improved by using roughened surfaces.


Zeolite Coating Ion exchange Lithium Adsorption heat pump 



This work was supported by ITU Scientific Research Projects Unit (Grant # 40858).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Tatlier M, Tantekin-Ersolmaz B, Erdem-Şenatalar A (1999) A novel approach to enhance heat and mass transfer in adsorption heat pumps using the zeolite–water pair. Micropor Mesopor Mater 27:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dawoud B (2013) Water vapor adsorption kinetics on small and full scale zeolite coated adsorbers; a comparison. Appl Therm Eng 50:1645–1651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bonaccorsi L, Calabrese L, Frandeni A, Proverbio E, Restuccia G (2013) Zeolites direct synthesis on heat exchangers for adsorption heat pumps. Appl Therm Eng 50:1590–1595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Li XH, Hou XH, Zhang X, Yuan ZX (2015) A review on development of adsorption cooling-Novel beds and advanced cycles. Energ Conv Manag 94:221–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tatlier M, Erdem-Şenatalar A (1999) The stability of zeolite coatings grown on metal supports for heat pump applications. Stud Surf Sci Catal 125:101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Erdem-Şenatalar A, Tatlier M, Ürgen M (1999) Preparation of zeolite coatings by direct heating of the substrates. Micropor Mesopor Mater 32:331–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schnabel L, Tatlier M, Schmidt F, Erdem-Şenatalar A (2010) Adsorption kinetics of zeolite coatings directly crystallized on metal supports for heat pump applications. Appl Therm Eng 30:1409–1416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tatlier M, Munz G, Fueldner G, Henninger S (2014) Effect of zeolite A coating thickness on adsorption kinetics for heat pump applications. Micropor Mesopor Mater 193:115–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Canivet J, Fateeva A, Guo Y, Coasne B, Farrusseng D (2014) Water adsorption in MOFs: fundamentals and applications. Chem Soc Rev 43:5594–5617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tatlier M (2017) Performances of MOF vs. zeolite coatings in adsorption cooling applications. Appl Therm Eng 113:290–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Furukawa H, Gandara F, Zhang Y-B, Jiang J, Queen WL, Hudson MR, Yaghi OM (2014) Water adsorption in porous metal−organic frameworks and related materials. J Am Chem Soc 136:4369–4381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ng E-P, Mintova S (2008) Nanoporous materials with enhanced hydrophilicity and high water sorption capacity. Micropor Mesopor Mater 114:1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Henninger SK, Schmidt FP, Henning H-M (2011) Characterization and improvement of sorption materials with molecular modeling for the use in heat transformation applications. Adsorption 17:833–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Henninger SK, Ernst S-J, Gordeeva L, Bendix P, Fröhlich D, Grekova AD, Bonaccorsi L, Aristov Y, Jaenchen J (2017) New materials for adsorption heat transformation and storage. Renew En 110:59–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ribeiro F, Silva JM, Silva E, Vaz MF, Oliveira FAC (2011) Catalytic combustion of toluene on Pt zeolite coated cordierite foams. Cat Today 176:93–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    de la Iglesia O, Sebastián V, Mallada R, Nikolaidis G, Coronas J, Kolb G, Zapf R, Hessel V, Santamaría J (2007) Preparation of Pt/ZSM-5 films on stainless steel microreactors. Cat Today 125:2–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang JC, Tian D, Han LN, Chang LP, Bao WR (2011) In situ synthesized Cu-ZSM-5/cordierite for reduction of NO. Trans Nonferrous Metals Soc China 21:353–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tarditi AM, Lombardo EA (2008) Influence of exchanged cations (Na+, Cs+, Sr2+ and Ba2+) on xylene permeation through ZSM-5/SS tubular membranes. Sep Purif Technol 61:136–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Guan G, Kusakabe K, Morooka S (2001) Gas permeation properties of ion-exchanged LTA-type zeolite membranes. Sep Sci Technol 36:2233–2245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hasegawa Y, Watanabe K, Kusakabe K, Morooka S (2001) The separation of CO2 using Y-type zeolite membranes ion-exchanged with alkali metal cations. Sep Purif Technol 22-3:319–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang J, Wang Z, Guo S, Zhang J, Song Y, Dong X, Wang X, Yu J (2011) Antibacterial and anti-adhesive zeolite coatings on titanium alloy surface. Micropor Mesopor Mater 146:216–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    McDonnell AMP, Beving D, Wang AJ, Chen W, Yan YS (2005) Hydrophilic and antimicrobial zeolite coatings for gravity-independent water separation. Adv Funct Mater 15:336–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tang XL, Provenzano J, Xu Z, Dong JH, Duan HB, Xiao H (2011) Acidic ZSM-5 zeolite-coated long period fiber grating for optical sensing of ammonia. J Mater Chem 21:181–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Treacy MMJ, Higgins JB (2001) Collection of simulated XRD powder patterns for zeolites. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shang Y, Wu J, Zhu J, Wang Y, Liu R, Meng C (2010) Adsorption of nitrogen and oxygen in cobalt(II)-exchanged zeolite A. Mater Res Bull 45:1132–1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sebastian J, Peter SA, Jasra RV (2005) Adsorption of nitrogen, oxygen and argon in cobalt(II)-exchanged zeolite X. Langmuir 21:11220–11225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Du X, Wu E (2007) Porosity of microporous zeolites A, X and ZSM-5 studied by small angle X-ray scattering and nitrogen adsorption. J Phys Chem Solids 68:1692–1699CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringIstanbul Technical University, MaslakIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations