Incorporation of Mn2+ into cobalt ferrite via sol–gel method: insights on induced changes in the structural, thermal, dielectric, and magnetic properties

  • M. I. A. Abdel MaksoudEmail author
  • Ahmed El-ghandourEmail author
  • Gharieb S. El-Sayyad
  • A. S. Awed
  • A. H. Ashour
  • Ahmed I. El-Batal
  • Mohamed Gobara
  • E. K. Abdel-Khalek
  • M. M. El-Okr
Original Paper: Sol-gel and hybrid materials for dielectric, electronic, magnetic and ferroelectric applications


Precise tailoring of nanostructured cobalt ferrite paves the way to design and develop devices for stress and noncontact torque sensors. Herein, Mn2+ ions are inserted into cobalt ferrite with different ratios using a facile sol–gel method. The as-synthesized ferrites are characterized via energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). EDX analyses affirm the stoichiometry of the synthesized samples with the intended ratios. The FTIR and XRD prove the presence of a single-phase cubic spinel structure for all as-synthesized samples. The dislocation, the inter-chain distance and the distortion parameter values decrease with increasing Mn2+ content, which outweigh the improvement of the crystal structure of the doped CFO samples. SEM micrographs illustrate that the incorporation of Mn2+ significantly soars the porosity of the samples. TEM images reveal that the samples comprise particles in the nanometer range with spherical shape and porous nature. Thermal analyses show that the weight loss is dependent on Mn2+ content in the sample. For instance, at x = 0, a slight variation in the weight loss estimated by 8% is observed while at x = 0.25 the weight loss has reached up to 40%. The dielectric losses (8 × 105) of Co0.5Mn0.5 Fe2O4 is enough to meet the demands of microwave applications. Finally, a reduction in the magnetization of the pure CFO from 68.419 emu g−1 to 50.307 emu g−1 is achieved at x = 0.25.

Herein, manganese substituted cobalt ferrites were synthesized using a facile sol–gel method. The Rietveld refinements of Co1-xMnxFe2O4 have studied. SEM images have indicated that the surface of the as-synthesized NPs has some porous shapes. EDX analyses have affirmed the stoichiometry of the samples. The TEM image reveals that particles are in the nanometer range. Thermal analyses show that the weight loss is dependent on Mn2+ content in the sample. The dielectric losses (8 × 105) of Co0.5Mn0.5 Fe2O4 is enough to meet the demands of microwave applications. The hysteresis loops reveal that the magnetic behavior of the CFO NPs is significantly influenced by Mn2+ ions substitution.


  • Mn2+ is successfully incorporated into cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) via sol–gel method.

  • XRD and Williamson-Hall analyses reveal that all samples comprise nanoparticles.

  • SEM micrographs show that the samples’ porosity soars with increasing Mn2+ content.

  • TEM images reveal that the samples consist of spherical nanoparticle porous nature.

  • The sample of the highest content of Mn2+ has the lowest Gibbs energy.


Sol–gel Manganese-cobalt ferrite TEM SEM micrographs Magnetization 



The authors thank the Materials Science Unit, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Egypt, for financing and supporting this study under the project synthesizing and characterizations of nanomagnetic materials. The authors appreciate the work introduced by the Zeiss microscopy team in Cairo for their invaluable advice during this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10971_2019_4964_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.3 mb)
Supplementary information.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Materials Science Lab, Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT)Atomic Energy AuthorityCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Center of Photonics and Smart MaterialsZewail City of Science and TechnologyGizaEgypt
  3. 3.Physics Department, Faculty of ScienceDamietta UniversityDamiettaEgypt
  4. 4.Drug Radiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT)Atomic Energy AuthorityCairoEgypt
  5. 5.Chemical Engineering Department, Military Technical CollegeEgyptian Armed ForcesCairoEgypt
  6. 6.Physics Department, Faculty of ScienceAl-Azhar UniversityCairoEgypt

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