Advertisement

Perovskite solar cells free of hole transport layer

  • J. Asad
  • S. K. K. ShaatEmail author
  • H. Musleh
  • N. Shurrab
  • A. Issa
  • Abelilah Lahmar
  • A. Al Kahlout
  • N. Al DahoudiEmail author
Original Paper: Devices based on sol-gel or hybrid materials
  • 60 Downloads

Abstract

In this work, easy and simple structured perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are designed and characterized. Our effort was to reduce the cost of the fabrication of such PSC devices, first by using an inexpensive starting precursor (aqueous methylamine solution) for the perovskite materials and second by design in a PSC structure free of the expensive hole transport layer (HTL). The CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite sols were deposited onto a conductive FTO glass using the spin coating technique followed by heating at 100 °C for 10 min. The structure of the films was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and their optical properties by UV–VIS spectrophotometry and photoluminescence (PL). The obtained phase confirmed the formation of a tetragonal perovskite structure. Two different solvents have been used, dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The effect of the type and the concentration of the used solvent DMF and DMSO on the performance of the solar cells have been investigated. It was found that a 40% concentration of the perovskite material resulted in the optimum film thickness that gives the best photoelectric performance. The DMF-based PSC assembled solar cell exhibited the best performance with an open circuit voltage of 750 mV, a photocurrent density of 12.5 mA/cm2, and an overall photon to electric conversion efficiency of 5.7%; all these results are higher than those of cells made with DMSO.

Highlights

  • Easy and simple structured perovskite solar cells free of the hole transport layer were designed for efficient low-cost organolead halide perovskites solar cells by using inexpensive precursors.

  • The influence of the concentration and the type of the solvent of the obtained perovskite materials on the performance of the solar cell have been investigated.

  • For both the used solvents (DMF and DMSO), it was found that a 40% concentration is the optimum to obtain better performance for the DMF-based PSC.

  • An open circuit voltage of 750 mV, a photocurrent density of 12.5 mA/cm2 with an overall photon to electric conversion efficiency of 5.7% was obtained.

Keywords

Sol–gel Perovskite solar cell Free HTL HTM DMF DMSO 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported financially partially by the PHC Al Maqdisi Grant No. 37038WF and the Palestinian German Joint Research Project PALGER2015-34-012. The authors would like to thank Mr. Ahmad Ashour for his assistance in UV–VIS measurements.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Shaat S, Zayed H, Musleh H, Shurrab N, Issa A, Asad J, Al Dahoudi N (2017) Inexpensive organic dyes-sensitized zinc oxide nanoparticles photoanode for solar cells devices. J Photonics Energy 7(2):025504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hagfeldt A, Boschloo G, Sun L, Kloo L, Pettersson H (2010) Dye-sensitized solar cells. Chem Rev 110(11):6595–6663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yella A, Lee H, Tsao H, Yi C, Chandiran A, Nazeeruddin Md, Diau E, Yeh C, Zakeeruddin S, Grätzel M (2011) Porphyrin-sensitized solar cells with cobalt (II/III)-based redox electrolyte exceed 12 percent efficiency. Science 434:629–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Burschka J, Pellet N, Moon S, Humphry-Baker R, Gao P, Nazeeruddin M, Grätzel M (2013) Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells. Nature 499:316–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mozaffari S, RezaNateghi M, BorhaniZarandi M (2017) An overview of the challenges in the commercialization of dye sensitized solar cells. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 71:675–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bach U, Lupo D, Comte P, Moser JE, Weissörtel F, Salbeck J, Spreitzer H, Grätzel M (1998) Solid-state dye-sensitized mesoporous TiO2 solar cells with high photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies. Nature 395:583–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cai N, Moon S, Cevey-Ha L, Moehl T, Humphry-Baker R, Wang P, Zakeeruddin S, Grätzel M (2011) An organic D–π–A dye for record efficiency solid-state sensitized heterojunction solar cells. Nano Lett 11(4):1452–1456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    IP A, Quan L, Adachi M, McDowell J, Xu J, Kim D, Sargent E (2015) A two-step route to planar perovskite cells exhibiting reduced hysteresis. Appl Phys Lett 106:143902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kim H, Lee C, Im J, Lee K, Moehl T, Marchioro A, Moon S, Humphry-Baker R, Yum J, Moser J, Grätzel M, Park N (2012) Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%. Sci Rep 2:591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lee M, Teuscher J, Miyasaka T, Murakami T, Snaith S (2012) Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites. Science 338:643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kojima A, Teshima K, Shirai Y, Miyasaka T (2009) Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells. J Am Chem Soc 131:6050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Stranks SD, Eperon GE, Grancini G, Menelaou C, Alcocer MJP, Leijtens T, Herz LM, Petrozza A, Snaith HJ (2012) Electron–hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber. Science 342:341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Xing G, Mathews N, Sun S, Lim SS, Lam YM, Grätzel M, Mhaisalkar S, Sum TC (2013) Long-range balanced electron- and hole-transport lengths in organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbI3. Science 342:344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Burschka J, Pellet N, Moon S-J, Humphry-Baker R, Gao P, Nazeeruddin MK, Grätzel M (2013) Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells. Nature 499:316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zuo C, Ding L (2014) An 80.11% FF record achieved for perovskite solar cells by using the NH4Cl additive. Nanoscale 6:9935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Etgar L (2015) Hole-transport material-free perovskite-based solar cells. MRS Bull 40:674–680Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shi J, Dong J, Lv S, Xu Y, Zhu L, Xiao J, Xu X, Wu H, Li D, Luo Y, Menga Q (2014) Hole-conductor-free perovskite organic lead iodide heterojunction thin-film solar cells: high efficiency and junction property. Appl Phys Lett 104:063901Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wang S, Sina M, Parikh P, Uekert T, Shahbazian B, Devaraj A, Meng YS (2016) Role of 4-tert-butylpyridine as a hole transport layer morphological controller in perovskite solar cells. Nano Lett 16:5594–5600Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kim G-W, Shinde DV, Park T (2015) Thickness of hole transport layer in perovskite solar cells: performances versus reproducibility. RSC Adv 5:99356–99360Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    AIefanova I (2016) Lead free CH3NH3SnI3 perovskite thin-film with p-type semiconducting nature and metal-like conductivity. Thesis and Dissertations, South Dakota State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Guo X, McCleese C, Kolodziej C, Samia ACS, Zhao Y, Burda C (2016) Identification and characterization of the intermediate phase in hybrid organic–inorganic MAPbI3 perovskite. DaltonTrans 45:3806–3813Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Konstantakou M, Perganti D, Falaras P, Stergiopoulos T (2017) Anti-solvent crystallization strategies for highly efficient perovskite solar cells. Crystals 7:291Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dang Y, Wei J, Liu X, Wang X, Xu K, Lei M, Hu W, Tao X (2018) Layered hybrid perovskite solar cells based on single-crystalline precursor solutions with superior reproducibility. Sustain Energy Fuels 2:2237–2243Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Huang D, Goh T, Zheng Y, Qin Z, Zhao J, Zhao S, Xu Z, Taylor AD (2018) An additive dripping technique using diphenyl ether for tuning perovskite crystallization for high-efficiency solar cells. Nano Res 11:2648–2657Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chen J, Song J, Huang F, Li H, Liu S, Wang M, Shen Y (2017) The role of synthesis parameters on crystallization and grain size in hybrid halide perovskite solar cells. J Phys Chem C 121:17053–17061Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Qiu J, Wang G, Xu W, Jin Q, Liu L, Yang B, Tai K, Cao A, Jiang X (2016) Dark-blue mirror-like perovskite dense films for efficient organic–inorganic hybrid solar cells. J Mater Chem A 4:3689Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pearson AJ (2017) Structure formation and evolution in semiconductor films for perovskite and organic photovoltaics. J Mater Res 32:1798–1824Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Aldibaja FK, Badia L, Mas-Marzá E, Sánchez RS, Barea EM, Mora-Sero I (2015) Effect of different lead precursors in perovskite solar cells performance and stability. J Mater Chem A 3:9194–9200Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Momblona C, Malinkiewicz O, Roldán-Carmona C, Soriano A, Gil-Escrig L, Bandiello E, Scheepers M, Edri E, Bolink HJ (2014) Efficient methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells with active layers from 300 to 900 nm. APL Mater 2:081504.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4890056
  30. 30.
    Hettiarachchi CL (2017) Organometal halide perovskite solar absorbers and ferroelectric nanocomposites for harvesting solar energy. A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Department of Physics College of Arts and Sciences University of South FloridaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Asad
    • 1
  • S. K. K. Shaat
    • 2
    Email author
  • H. Musleh
    • 1
  • N. Shurrab
    • 3
  • A. Issa
    • 4
  • Abelilah Lahmar
    • 5
  • A. Al Kahlout
    • 1
  • N. Al Dahoudi
    • 1
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Physics DepartmentAl Azhar University-GazaGazaPalestine
  2. 2.Physics DepartmentIslamic University of GazaGazaPalestine
  3. 3.Chemistry DepartmentAl Azhar University-GazaGazaPalestine
  4. 4.Engineering DepartmentAl Azhar University-GazaGazaPalestine
  5. 5.Laboratory of Physics of Condensed Matter (LPMC)University of Picardie Jules VerneAmiens Cedex 1France
  6. 6.INM—Leibniz Institute for New MaterialsSaarbrückenGermany

Personalised recommendations