Low temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline V2O5 using the non-hydrolytic sol–gel method

  • Jennifer Gadient
  • Veronica Livingstone
  • Daniela Klink
  • Corey R. Grice
  • Cora LindEmail author
Original Paper: Nano-structured materials (particles, fibers, colloids, composites, etc.)


Vanadium oxide was synthesized using the non-hydrolytic sol-gel method. Reactions with two different vanadium precursors, VCl3 and VOCl3, were investigated at room temperature. All raw and heat-treated samples were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy coupled with scanning electron microscopy, and thermal analysis. For the VCl3 precursor, crystalline V2O5 was formed following heat treatments between 200 and 250 °C. Broad diffraction features, indicative of nanocrystalline material, were observed in dried samples for VOCl3, while heat treatment to 250 °C produced well-crystallized V2O5. Interesting porous morphologies with large crystallographic coherence lengths were observed for the heat-treated samples.


  • Nanocrystalline V2O5 was synthesized at low temperature using the non-hydrolytic sol–gel method.

  • Well-defined V2O5 crystallized after heating to 200 to 250 °C.

  • Precursor-dependent morphologies include spheres, fibrous webs and platelets.


V2O5 Non-hydrolytic sol–gel synthesis Low temperature crystallization Nanocrystalline PXRD 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10971_2019_4926_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2.5 mb)
Supplementary Information


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of Toledo, Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryToledoUSA
  2. 2.The University of Toledo, Department of Physics and AstronomyToledoUSA

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