Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

, Volume 89, Issue 2, pp 602–615 | Cite as

Synthesis of phosphorylated raw sawdust for the removal of toxic metal ions from aqueous medium: Adsorption mechanism for clean approach

  • Mosaed Saud Alhumaimess
  • Ibrahim Hotan Alsohaimi
  • Ayoub Abdullah Alqadami
  • Mahmoud Mohamed Kamel
  • Mu. NaushadEmail author
  • Tansir Ahamad
  • Hamed Alshammari
Original Paper: Sol–gel and hybrid materials for energy, environment and building applications


In this work, phosphorus oxychloride was grafted onto the surface of raw sawdust (RSD) particles to get effective adsorbent for capturing Cd(II), Cr(III), and Pb(II) metal ions from aqueous medium. Phosphorylated raw sawdust (RSD@P) was characterized by FTIR, TGA, SEM-EDX, TEM, BET, and XPS analyses. Various experimental conditions of adsorption viz. pH, contact time, temperature, and initial concentration were optimized. The adsorption behavior of RSD@P concerning adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics was also studied. The values of qe for Cd(II), Cr(III), and Pb(II) metal ions onto RSD@P was found to be 244.3, 325, and 217 mg/g, respectively at 298 K according to monolayer Langmuir adsorption. The adsorption kinetics data revealed that Cd(II), Cr(III), and Pb(II) metal ions were well fitted to pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic results demonstrated that adsorption was spontaneous and exothermic. The mechanisms of interactions was also discussed for the adsorption of Cd(II), Cr(III), and Pb(II) metal ions over RSD@P. The obtained results showed that RSD@P was an auspicious adsorbent which showed outstanding reusability for the removal of metal ions from aqueous medium.


  • Crosslinked phosphorylated raw sawdust (RSD@P) was prepared.

  • The material (RSD@P) was used for the removal of Cd(II), Cr(III), and Pb(II) from aqueous medium.

  • Adsorption of all metal ions onto RSD@P was rapid, spontaneous, and exothermic.

  • The values of qe for Cd(II), Cr(III), and Pb(II) was 244.3, 325, and 217 mg/g, respectively.

  • The RSD@P was regenerated by simply washing with 0.1 M HCl solution.


Phosphorylated sawdust Adsorption Toxic metals Adsorption models 



The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this work through Research Group No. (RG-1436-034).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10971_2018_4870_MOESM1_ESM.docx (103 kb)
Supplementary materials


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, College of ScienceJouf UniversitySakaka-2014Saudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, College of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Faculty of Science, Department of ChemistryUniversity of HailHailSaudi Arabia

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