Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

, Volume 88, Issue 2, pp 465–473 | Cite as

The effect of gelatin as a chelating agent on the synthesis and characterization of LiMn2O4 nanopowders prepared via sol–gel method

  • Nasrin Azad
  • Hadi ArabiEmail author
  • Shaban Reza Ghorbani
  • Ali davodi
Original Paper: Nano-structured materials (particles, fibers, colloids, composites, etc.)


In this research, LiMn2O4 nanopowders were synthesized by the sol–gel method using gelatin as a chelating agent. Three categories of samples with various weight ratios of gelatin to the final product, 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1, have been synthesized. The produced gel was dried in a controllable oven with a slow slope up to 250 ˚C and calcined at different temperatures. The results show that the amount of gelatin affects the structural properties such as the formation temperature of the spinel structure, the homogeneity of the size distribution and size of the particles. The sample with the weight ratio of 3:1 of gelatin to the final product has a lower temperature for the formation of LiMn2O4 with more homogeneity, and smaller particles with the average size of 70 nm, which is calcined at 750 ˚C, while the samples with the weight ratios 2:1 and 1:1 have the average particle sizes of 75 and 89 nm, respectively.


  • Gelatin was used for the first time as a chelating agent in sol–gel method.

  • Synthesis of LiMn2O4 nanopowders was carried out by various amount of gelatin.

  • The formation temperature of spinel structure depends on the amount of gelatin.

  • Increasing gelatin leads to more homogeneity and a decrease in the particle size.

  • The morphology of particles is as a polygonal shape with clear surfaces.


LiMn2O4 Sol–gel Gelatin Calcination process Chelating agent Nanopowders 



The authors acknowledge the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad for supporting this research via Grand no. 3/43499.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Renewable Energies, Magnetism and Nanotechnology Research Laboratory; Department of Physics, Faculty of ScienceFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran
  2. 2.Research Center for Hydrogen Storage Materials and Lithium-Ion Batteries, Faculty of ScienceFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran
  3. 3.Department of Materials Science, Faculty of EngineeringFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran

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