Advertisement

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry

, Volume 322, Issue 3, pp 1563–1570 | Cite as

Characterization of soil, sediment, and wastewater samples from hydraulic fracturing processes using the comparative NAA method

  • Maksat Kuatbek
  • Amanda M. JohnsenEmail author
  • Kenan Ünlü
Article
  • 16 Downloads

Abstract

Regulatory monitoring of oil and gas development requires the accurate multi-elemental analysis of wellbore samples on a regular basis. In this study, an unconventional method, comparative neutron activation analysis (comparative NAA), was applied for the multi-elemental characterization of solid and liquid hydraulic fracturing samples at the ppm level. The obtained values from three wastewater samples were compared with the most probable values determined via an inter-laboratory study, which involved 15 different laboratories from the United States, Canada, and Germany. The comparison showed that 15 out of 19 comparative NAA trace element concentration values were considered acceptable, providing a new technique to determine elemental concentrations in high salinity hydraulic fracturing samples.

Keywords

Neutron activation analysis (NAA) Hydraulic fracturing Gamma ray spectroscopy 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The hydraulic fracturing wastewater and solid samples were provided by Dr. Nathaniel R. Warner of the Pennsylvania State University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. The project was supported by the Pennsylvania State University Radiation Science and Engineering Center.

References

  1. 1.
    Entrekin S (2011) Rapid expansion of natural gas development poses a threat to surface waters. Front Ecol Environ 9:503–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Meng Q, Ashby S (2014) Distance: a critical aspect for environmental impact assessment of hydraulic fracking. Extr Ind Soc 1:124–126Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ferrer I, Thurman E (2015) Chemical constituents and analytical approaches for hydraulic fracturing water. Trends Environ Anal Chem 5:18–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Holloway MD, Rudd O (2015) Fracking—the operations and environmental consequences of hydraulic fracturing. Scrivener Publishing, BeverlyGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tasker TL, Burgos WD, Ajemigbitse MA, Lauer NE, Gusa AV, Kuatbek M, May D, Landis JD, Alessi DS, Johnsen AM, Kaste JM, Headrick KL, Wilke FDH, McNeal M, Engle M, Jubb AM, Vidic RD, Vengosh A, Warner NR (2019) Accuracy of methods for reporting inorganic element concentrations and radioactivity in oil and gas wastewaters from the Appalachian Basin, U.S. based on an inter-laboratory comparison. Environ Sci-Proc Imp 21:224–241Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zahn GS, Ticianelli RB, Lange CN, Favaro DIT, Figueiredo AMG (2015) Uncertainty analysis in comparative NAA applied to geological and biological matrices. In: INAC 2015: international nuclear atlantic conference Brazilian nuclear program State policy for a sustainable world, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hoaglin DC, Mosteller F, Tukey JW (1983) Understanding robust and exploratory data analysis. Wiley series in probability and mathematical statistics. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kuatbek M (2018) Characterization of fracking soil, sediment, and wastewater samples using comparative neutron activation analysis method. M.Sc. thesis in Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PAGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Johnsen AM, Ünlü K (2018) Neutron activation analysis capabilities and applications at the Penn State Radiation Science and Engineering Center. Forensic Chem 7:56–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ünlü K, Pearson C, Hauck DK, Kuniholm PI (2009) Dating volcanic eruptions with tree-ring chemistry. IEEE Potentials 28:36–44.  https://doi.org/10.1109/MPOT.2009.934193 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nuclear EngineeringThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.Radiation Science and Engineering CenterThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations