Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes: Adsorbent for Ruthenium from Aqueous Solution

  • 88 Accesses


This paper describes the adsorption behavior of ruthenium on multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) from aqueous solution. The adsorption behavior of ruthenium on MWCNTs was studied with respect to contact time, pH, concentration of metal ion, adsorbent dosages and temperature. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted to Pseudo first order, Pseudo second order, Elovich and Intra-particle diffusion kinetic model as well as Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin–Radushkevich and Temkin isotherm models. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm model was found to be best fitted in terms of standard deviation and regression coefficient. The thermodynamics parameter such as ΔH°, ΔS°, ΔG° were also calculated. The endothermic nature of adsorption is indicated by positive value of ΔH° and ΔS° resulting the randomness at solid solution interface towards favorable adsorption.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9


  1. 1.

    Swain P, Mallika C, Srinivasan R, Mudali UK, Natarajan R (2013) Separation and recovery of ruthenium: a review. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 298(2):781–796

  2. 2.

    Singh K, Sonar NL, Valsala TP, Kulkarni Y, Vincent T, Kumar A (2014) Removal of ruthenium from high-level radioactive liquid waste generated during reprocessing of spent fuel. Desalin Water Treat 52(1–3):514–525

  3. 3.

    Swain P, Annapoorani S, Srinivasan R, Mallika C, Mudali UK, Natarajan R (2014) Separation of ruthenium from simulated nuclear waste in nitric acid medium using n-paraffin hydrocarbon. Sep Sci Technol 49(1):112–120

  4. 4.

    Eichholz GG (1978) Hazards and control of ruthenium in the nuclear fuel cycle. Prog Nucl Energy 2(1):29–76

  5. 5.

    Aly HF, EL-said N, Kassem AT (2016) Separation and speciation of ruthenium from nitrate medium by Ira-410 anion exchangers kinetic, thermodynamics and reaction mechanism. Eur J Appl Sci 8(1):28–40

  6. 6.

    Johal SK, Boxall C, Gregson C, Steele C (2015) Ruthenium volatilisation from reprocessed spent nuclear fuel—studying the baseline thermodynamics of Ru (III). ECS Trans 66(21):31–42

  7. 7.

    Qadeer R (2007) Adsorption behaviour of ruthenium ions on activated charcoal from nirtic acid medium. Colloids Surf A: Physicochem Eng Asp 293(1–3):217–223

  8. 8.

    Qadeer R (2005) Adsorption of ruthenium ions on activated charcoal: influence of temperature on the kinetics of the adsorption process. J Zhejiang Univ. Sci B 6(5):353

  9. 9.

    Wilson AS (1960) Ruthenium volatilization in the distillation of nitric acid. J Chem Eng Data 5(4):521–524

  10. 10.

    Sato T (1989) Volatilization behaviour of ruthenium from boiling nitric acid. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 129(1):77–84

  11. 11.

    Polak P (1977) Ion exchange separations of nitrosyl complexes of ruthenium in hydrochloric acid. Radiochim Acta 24(4):193–196

  12. 12.

    Lee SH, Chung H (2003) Ion exchange characteristics of palladium and ruthenium from a simulated radioactive liquid waste. Sep Sci Technol 38(14):3459–3472

  13. 13.

    Liu QP, Wang YC, Liu JC, Cheng JK (1993) Separation and determination of platinum metals and some transition metals by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Anal Sci 9(4):523–528

  14. 14.

    Beamish FE (1966) A critical review of gravimetric methods for determination of the noble metals—II. Talanta 13(6):773–801

  15. 15.

    Gandon R, Boust D, Bedue O (1993) Ruthenium complexes originating from the Purex process: coprecipitation with copper ferrocyanides via ruthenocyanide formation. Radiochim Acta 61(1):41–46

  16. 16.

    Hölgye Z (1987) Volatility of ruthenium during heating of a residue containing calcium phosphate. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 117(6):353–360

  17. 17.

    Hölgye Z, Křivánek M (1978) On the volatility of ruthenium. J Radioanal Nucl Chem. 42(1):133–141

  18. 18.

    Lietzke MH, Griess JC (1953) A study of the electrodeposition of ruthenium from very dilute solutions. J Electrochem Soc 100(10):434–441

  19. 19.

    Kobayashi Y, Yamatera H, Okuno H (1965) The electrodeposition of ruthenium from a ruthenium (III) and ruthenium (IV) solution and a fission products solution. Bull Chem Soc Jpn 38(11):1911–1915

  20. 20.

    Motojima K (1990) Removal of ruthenium from PUREX process (II) fundamental research of electrolytic oxidation of ruthenium. J Nucl Sci Technol 27(3):262–266

  21. 21.

    Tikhomirova TI, Fadeeva VI, Kudryavtsev GV (1992) Complex formation of ruthenium (IV) and osmium (VIII) with 1, 10-phenanthroline on the surface of silica sorbents. Anal Chim Acta 257(1):109–116

  22. 22.

    Sharma P, Bhardwaj D, Tomar R, Tomar R (2007) Recovery of Pd (II) and Ru (III) from aqueous waste using inorganic ion-exchanger. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 274(2):281

  23. 23.

    Qadeer R (2013) Concentration effects associated with the kinetics of ruthenium ions adsorption on activated charcoal. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 295(3):1649–1653

  24. 24.

    Mimura H, Ohta H, Akiba K, Onodera Y (2002) Uptake and recovery of ruthenium by alginate gel polymers. J Nucl Sci Technol 39(6):655–660

  25. 25.

    Serrano J, Granados F, Bertin V, Bulbulian S (2002) Speciation of some 235U fission products in nitrate solution and their sorption behaviour on thermally treated hydrotalcites. Sep Sci Technol 37(2):329–341

  26. 26.

    Krishna MB, Arunachalam J, Prabhu DR, Manchanda VK, Kumar S (2005) Removal of 106Ru from actual low-level radioactive waste solutions using polyaniline as anion-exchanger. Sep Sci Technol 40(6):1313–1332

  27. 27.

    Kora AJ, Bhaskarapillai A, Toleti SR (2016) Exopolymer produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a super sorbent for ruthenium. Sep Sci Technol 51(9):1455–1460

  28. 28.

    Merkoçi A (2006) Carbon nanotubes in analytical sciences. Microchim Acta 152(3–4):157–174

  29. 29.

    Tan XL, Xu D, Chen CL, Wang XK, Hu WP (2008) Adsorption and kinetic desorption study of 152+154Eu (III) on multiwall carbon nanotubes from aqueous solution by using chelating resin and XPS methods. Radiochim Acta 96(1/2008):23–29

  30. 30.

    Yavari R, Huang Y, Ahmadi S (2010) Adsorption of cesium (I) from aqueous solution using oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 287(2):393–401

  31. 31.

    Perevalov S, Molochnikova N (2009) Sorption of Pu in various oxidation states onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 281(3):603–608

  32. 32.

    Wang X, Chen C, Hu W, Ding A, Xu D, Zhou X (2005) Sorption of 243Am (III) to multiwall carbon nanotubes. Environ Sci Technol 39(8):2856–2860

  33. 33.

    Wang M, Tao X, Song X (2011) Effect of pH, ionic strength and temperature on sorption characteristics of Th(IV) on oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes. J Radioanal Nucl Chem. 288(3):859–865

  34. 34.

    Sun Y, Yang S, Sheng G, Guo Z, Wang X (2012) The removal of U (VI) from aqueous solution by oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes. J Environm Radioact 105:40–47

  35. 35.

    Schierz A, Zänker H (2009) Aqueous suspensions of carbon nanotubes: surface oxidation, colloidal stability and uranium sorption. Environ Pollut 157(4):1088–1094

  36. 36.

    Taqui Khan MM, Ramachandraiah G, Rao AP (1986) Ruthenium (III) chloride in aqueous solution: electrochemical and spectral studies. Inorg Chem 25(5):665–670

  37. 37.

    Kabiri-Tadi M, Faghihian H (2011) Removal of ruthenium from aqueous solution by clinoptilolite. Clays Clay Miner 59(1):34–41

  38. 38.

    Siczek AA, Steindler MJ (1978) The chemistry of ruthenium and zirconium in the PUREX solvent extraction process. Atomic Energy Rev 16(4):575–618

  39. 39.

    Dada AO, Olalekan AP, Olatunya AM, Dada O (2012) Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherms studies of equilibrium sorption of Zn2+ unto phosphoric acid modified rice husk. IOSR J Appl Chem 3(1):38–45

  40. 40.

    Akram M, Bhatti HN, Iqbal M, Noreen S, Sadaf S (2017) Biocomposite efficiency for Cr(VI) adsorption: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamics studies. J Environ Chem Eng 5(1):400–411

  41. 41.

    Li K, Liu Z, Wen T, Chen L, Dong Y (2012) Sorption of radiocobalt (II) onto Ca-montmorillonite: effect of contact time, solid content, pH, ionic strength and temperature. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 292(1):269–276

  42. 42.

    Ilaiyaraja P, Deb AKS, Sivasubramanian K, Ponraju D, Venkatraman B (2013) Removal of thorium from aqueous solution by adsorption using PAMAM dendron-functionalized styrene divinyl benzene. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 297(1):59–69

  43. 43.

    Zhao D, Zhu H, Wu C, Feng S, Alsaedi A, Hayat T, Chen C (2018) Facile synthesis of magnetic Fe3O4/graphene composites for enhanced U (VI) sorption. J Appl Surf Sci 444:691–698

Download references


The authors convey their sincere thanks to Dr. B. Venkatraman, Director, SQ & RMG, Dr. R. Baskaran, AD, RESG and R. Mathiyarasu, Head, RBDS for their constant encouragement and guidance throughout this work. The authors are also thankful to P. Ilaiyaraja and Ashish Kumar Singha Deb for their constant support during the course of this work. This work forms a part of the thesis to be submitted to the Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI), Mumbai by Mr. B.N. Mohanty for the award of Ph.D degree in Chemistry.

Author information

Correspondence to B. N. Mohanty.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mohanty, B.N., Ramani, Y., Krishnan, H. et al. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes: Adsorbent for Ruthenium from Aqueous Solution. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 321, 489–498 (2019) doi:10.1007/s10967-019-06607-5

Download citation


  • Nano tubes
  • Ruthenium
  • Adsorption
  • Langmuir Isotherm