Advertisement

Synthesis of cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and its use for Pb2+ and 137Cs removal from aqueous solution

  • Abdul G. Al Lafi
  • Jamal Al Abdullah
  • Reem Hasan
  • Yusr Amin
  • Tasneem Alnama
Article
  • 13 Downloads

Abstract

Sulfonated ion irradiated (H+ and He2+) PEEK films were synthesized with a range of cross-linking density and a variety of sulfonation degrees. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out at an initial pH of 6.0 ± 0.2, initial concentrations of Pb2+ and 137Cs ions of 10.0 mg L−1 and 5500 Bq L−1, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity was 60 mg g−1 for Pb2+, and the distribution coefficient reached 6200 cm3 g−1 for 137Cs. The results indicated that sulfonation could be used to recycle low cross-linked PEEK and prepare efficient adsorbents to remove toxic Pb2+ and 137Cs from polluted aqueous solutions.

Keywords

Ion irradiation Sulfonation Sorption Radionuclide Wastewater 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Prof. James N. Hay and Prof. David J. Parker for allowing the use of irradiation facility. Thanks are also due to Prof. I. Othman; the Director General of the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria for his support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Özcan AS, Gök Ö, Özcan A (2009) Adsorption of lead(II) ions onto 8-hydroxy quinoline-immobilized bentonite. J Hazard Mater 161:499–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    WHO (2008) Guidelines for drinking-water quality. World Health Organization, Genova. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/fulltext.pdf. Accessed 01 Sept 2017
  3. 3.
    Li K, Zheng Z, Li Y (2010) Characterization and lead adsorption properties of activated carbons prepared from cotton stalk by one-step H3PO4 activation. J Hazard Mater 181:440–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Al Abdullah J, Al Lafi AG, Al-Masri W, Amin Y, Alnama T (2016) Adsorption of cesium, cobalt, and lead onto a synthetic nano manganese oxide: behavior and mechanism. Water Air Soil Pollut 227:241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Al-abdullah J, Michel H, Barci V, Féraud G, Barci-Funel G (2013) Spatial and vertical distributions of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and cesium fractionation in sediments of the Var river and its tributaries (southeast France). J Radioannal Nucl Chem 298:25–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jamiu ZA, Saleh TA, Ali SA (2015) Synthesis of a unique cross-linked polyzwitterion/anion with an aspartic acid residue and its use for Pb2+ removal from aqueous solution. RSC Adv 5:42222–42232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gupta VK, Ali I, Saleh TA, Nayak A, Agarwal S (2012) Chemical treatment technologies for waste-water recycling—an overview. RSC Adv 2:6380–6388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gupta VK, Nayak A, Agarwal S (2015) Bioadsorbents for remediation of heavy metals: current status and their future prospects. Environ Eng Res 20:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ding D, Zhao Y, Yang S, Shi W, Zhang Z, Lei Z, Yang Y (2013) Adsorption of cesium from aqueous solution using agricultural residue-Walnut shell: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic modeling studies. Water Res 47:2563–2571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ding D, Lei Z, Yang Y, Feng C, Zhang Z (2014) Selective removal of cesium from aqueous solutions with nickel (II) hexacyanoferrate (III) functionalized agricultural residue-walnut shell. J Hazard Mater 270:187–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Duignan MR, Nash CA (2010) Removal of cesium from savannah river site waste with spherical resorcinol formaldehyde ion exchange resin: experimental Tests. Sep Sci Technol 45:1828–1840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ivanets AI, Shashkova IL, Kitikova NV, Drozdova NV (2014) Extraction of Co(II) ions from aqueous solutions with thermally activated dolomite. Rus J Appl Chem 87:270–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Celestian AJ, Kubicki JD, Hanson J, Clearfield A, Parise JB (2008) The mechanism responsible for extraordinary cs ion selectivity in crystalline silicotitanate. J Am Chem Soc 130:11689–11694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Aguila B, Banerjee D, Nie Z, Shin Y, Ma S, Thallapally PK (2016) Selective removal of cesium and strontium using porous frameworks from high level nuclear waste. Chem Commun 52:5940–5942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kitagawa S, Kitaura R, Si Noro (2004) Functional porous coordination polymers. Angew Chem Int Ed 43:2334–2375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Feng X, Ding X, Jiang D (2012) Covalent organic frameworks. Chem Soc Rev 41:6010–6022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Saleh TA, Muhammad AM, Ali SA (2016) Synthesis of hydrophobic cross-linked polyzwitterionic acid for simultaneous sorption of Eriochrome black T and chromium ions from binary hazardous waters. J Colloid Interface Sci 468:324–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Al Lafi AG, Ajji Z (2017) Radiation grafting of acrylic acid and N-vinyl imidazole onto polyethylene films for lead ion removal: a two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy investigation. J Appl Polym Sci 134:44781Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Al Lafi AG, Al Abdullah J, Alnama T, Amin Y (2017) Removal of lead from aqueous solutions by polyethylene waste/nano-manganese dioxide composite. J Polym Environ 25:391–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Al Abdullah J, Al Lafi AG, Amin Y, Alnama T (2018) A styrofoam-nano manganese oxide based composite: preparation and application for the treatment of wastewater. Appl Radiat Isotopes 136:73–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Najeeb S, Zafar MS, Khurshid Z, Siddiqui F (2016) Application of polyethrethrketone (PEEK) in oral implantology and prosthodontics. J Prosthodont Res 60:12–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sasuga T, Kudoh H (2000) Ion irradiation effects on thermal and mechanical properties of poly(ether-ether-ketone) PEEK. Polymer 41:185–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    EI-Sayed AH, Sasuga T, Seguchi T (1992) Irradiation effects on aromatic polymers: 3. Changes in thermal properties by gamma irradiation. Polymer 33:2911–2914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Al Lafi AG (2012) The effects of ion irradiation on the dielectric properties of poly(ether ether ketone). Polym Bull 68:2269–2283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Al Lafi AG, Hay JN (2009) Sulphonation of cross linked poly(ether ether ketone)-diffusion controlled kinetics. J Polym Sci Part B Polym Phys 47:775–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Al Lafi AG, Hay JN, Parker DJ (2008) The effect of ion irradiation on the thermal properties of poly(ether ether ketone). J Poly Sci Part B Polym Phys 46:2212–2221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    IAEA (2004) Quantifying uncertainty in nuclear analytical measurements. No. TECDOC-1401. IAEA, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cheney MA, Bhowmik PK, Qian S, Joo SW, Hou W, Okoh JM (2008) A new method of synthesizing black birnessite nanoparticles: from brown to black birnessite with nanostructures. J Nanomat 2008, Article ID 763706Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Khandekar RN, Tripathi RM, Raghunath R, Mishra UC (1988) Simultaneous determination of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu in surface soil using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. Indian J Environ Health 30:98–103Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kyzas GZ, Matis KA (2015) Nanoadsorbents for pollutants removal: a review. J Mol Liq 203:159–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wang N, Jin R-N, Omer AM, X-k Ouyang (2017) Adsorption of Pb(II) from fish sauce using carboxylated cellulose nanocrystal: isotherm, kenetics, and thermodynamic studies. Int J Biol Macromol 102:232–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ivanets AI, Prozorovich VG, Kouznetsova TF, Radkevich AV, Zarubo AM (2016) Mesoporous manganese oxides prepared by sol–gel method: synthesis, characterization and sorption properties towards strontium ions. Environ Nanotechnol Monit Manag 6:261–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Al Lafi AG (2014) FTIR spectroscopic analysis of ion irradiated poly(ether ether ketone). Polym Degrad Stab 105:122–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Al Lafi AG (2014) Molecular dynamics in ion-irradiated poly(ether ether ketone) investigated by two-dimensional correlation dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. Polym Adv Technol 25:9–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Al Lafi AG (2015) The sulfonation of poly(ether ether ketone)as investigated by two-dimensional FTIR correlation spectroscopy. J Appl Polym Sci 132: Article No. 41242Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Staiti P, Lufrano F, Arico AS, Passalacqua E, Antonucci V (2001) Sulfonated polybenzimidazole membranes-preparation and physico-chemical characterization. J Membr Sci 188:71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nguyen D, Taylor D, Qian K, Norouzi N, Rasmussen J, Botzet S, Lehmann M, Halverson K, Khine M (2010) Better shrinkage than Shrinky-Dinks. Lab Chip 10:1623–1626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Huntington MD, Engel CJ, Hryn AJ, Odom TW (2013) Polymer nanowrinkles with continuously tunable wavelengths. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 5:6438–6442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Moon M-W, Lee SH, Sun J-Y, Oh KH, Vaziri A, Hutchinson JW (2007) Wrinkled hard skins on polymers created by focused ion beam. PNAS 104:1130–1133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Al Lafi AG (2018) Application of 2D correlation methods to the analysis of XPS spectra of ion irradiated poly(ether ether ketone). J Polym Res 25:105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pehlivan E, Altun T (2006) The study of various parametres affecting the ion exchange of Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ from aqueous solution on Dowex 50 W synthetic resin. J Hazard Mater B 134:149–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Al Lafi AG, Al Abdullah J (2015) Cesium and cobalt adsorption on synthetic nano manganese oxide: a two dimensional infra-red correlation spectroscopic investigation. J Mol Struct 1093:13–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pehlivan E, Altum T (2007) Ion-exchange of Pb2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, and Ni2+ ions from aqueous solution by Lewatit CNP 80. J Hazard Mater 140:299–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Demirbas A, Pehlivan E, Gode F, Altum T, Arslan G (2005) Adsorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), and Cd(II) from aqueous solution on Amberlite IR-120 synthetic resin. J Colloid Interface Sci 282:20–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kocabaş-Atakli ZÖ, Yürüm Y (2013) Synthesis and characterization of anatase nanoadsorbent and application in removal of lead, copper and arsenic from water. Chem Eng J 255:625–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Awual R, Miyazaki Y, Taguchi T, Shiwaku H, Yaita T (2016) Encapsulation of cesium from contaminated water with highly selective facial organic–inorganic mesoporous hybrid adsorbent. Chem Eng J 291:128–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Samanta SK, Ramaswamy M, Misra BM (1992) Studies on cesium uptake by phenolic resins. Sep Sci Technol 27:255–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Borai EH, Harjula R, Malinen L, Paajanen A (2009) Efficient removal of cesium from low-level radioactive liquid waste using natural and impregnated zeolite minerals. J Hazard Mater 172:416–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Osmanlioglu AE (2006) Treatment of radioactive liquid waste by sorption on natural zeolite in Turkey. J Hazard Mater 137:332–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Faver-Reguillon A, Dunjic B, Lemaire M, Chomel R (2001) Synthesis and evaluation of resorcinol-based ion exchange resins for the selective removal of cesium. Solv Extr Ion Exch 19:181–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Liang S, Guo X, Feng N, Tian Q (2009) Application of orange peel xanthate for the adsorption of Pb2+ from aqueous solutions. J Hazard Mater 170:425–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bediako JK, Wei W, Kim S, Yum Y-S (2015) Removal of heavy metals from aqueous phases using chemically modified waste Lyocell fibre. J Hazard Mater 299:550–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Awua MR (2016) Ring size dependent crown ether based mesoporous adsorbent for high cesium adsorption from wastewater. Chem Eng J 303:539–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Vergili I, Soltobaeva G, Kaya Y, Gönder ZB, Çavuş S, Gürdağ G (2013) Study of the removal of Pb(II) using a weak acidic cation resin: kinetics, thermodynamics, equilibrium, and breakthrough curves. Ind Eng Chem Res 52:9227–9238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sharma T, Madras G (2016) Effect of crosslinker on the swelling and adsorption properties of cationic superabsorbent. Bull Mater Sci 39:613–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kabiri K, Omidian H, Hashemi SA, Zohuriaan-Mehr MJ (2003) Synthesis of fast-swelling superabsorbent hydrogels: effect of crosslinker type and concentration on porosity and adsorption rate. Eur Polym J 39:1341–1348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Al Lafi AG, Hay JN (2013) State of the water in crosslinked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). J Appl Polym Sci 128:3000–3009CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryAtomic Energy CommissionDamascusSyrian Arab Republic
  2. 2.Department of Protection and SafetyAtomic Energy CommissionDamascusSyrian Arab Republic

Personalised recommendations