Recommended nuclear data for medical radioisotope production: diagnostic gamma emitters
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Abstract
An extensive series of evaluations have been performed as part of an IAEA coordinated research project to study a set of nuclear reactions that produce the diagnostic gammaray emitting radionuclides ^{51}Cr, ^{99m}Tc, ^{111}In, ^{123}I and ^{201}Tl. Recommended crosssection data in the form of excitation functions have been derived, along with quantifications of their uncertainties. These evaluations involved the compilation of all previously published values and newly measured experimental data, followed by critical assessments and selection of those experimental datasets and accompanying uncertainties judged to be fully valid and statistically consistent for modelindependent leastsquares fitting by means of Padé approximations. Integral yields as a function of the energy were also calculated on the basis of the recommended cross sections deduced from these various fits. All evaluated numerical results and their corresponding uncertainties are available online at wwwnds.iaea.org/medical/gamma_emitters.html and also on the medical portal of the International Atomic Energy Agency/Nuclear Data Section (IAEANDS) wwwnds.iaea.org/medportal/.
Keywords
IAEA Coordinated Research Project Diagnostic medical isotopes γray emitters Crosssection evaluation Uncertainty estimation Padé fit Recommended σ and yield dataIntroduction
The production of diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides for medical applications is a very important nonenergy related application of nuclear science and technology [1]. Such radionuclides are produced in both neutron and chargedparticle induced nuclear reactions, and the list of these reactions used for the generation of diagnostic radioisotopes (gammaray emitters for SPECT and β^{+} emitters for PET imaging) and employed to monitor these preparative procedures is long. Dedicated compilations and evaluations of production crosssection data for such medical radionuclides were started over 20 years ago in a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) initiated and supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) [2]. This first concerted effort was identified with nuclear reactions used to produce widely used diagnostic radionuclides for SPECT and PET imaging (twentysix reactions to generate ^{11}C, ^{13}N, ^{15}O, ^{18}F, ^{67}Ga, ^{68}Ge/^{68}Ga, ^{81}Rb, ^{82}Sr, ^{111}In, ^{123}I, ^{123}Cs/^{123}Xe/^{123}I and ^{201}Pb/^{201}Tl), and a selection of twentytwo reactions used to monitor beam parameters during the irradiations. All results were published in IAEATECDOC1211 [3], made available within the medical portal of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section [4], and were subsequently updated in 2003 and 2004 [5, 6]. Both methods of presentation contain recommended crosssection data and the corresponding deduced yields. A second IAEA CRP was launched in 2003 to cover the production routes for established (^{103}Pd, ^{186}Re and ^{192}Ir) and emerging therapeutic radionuclides (^{64}Cu, ^{67}Cu, ^{67}Ga, ^{86}Y, ^{111}In, ^{114m}In, ^{124}I, ^{125}I, ^{169}Yb, ^{177}Lu, ^{211}At and ^{225}Ac) totalling thirtyfive reactions [7].
 (a)
Reevaluate those reactions for which important new data have been reported,
 (b)
Extend the list of potential radionuclides and their recommended excitation functions for medical applications,
 (c)
Determine uncertainties in the recommended crosssection data deduced from Padé fits on statistically consistent and critically selected datasets, and
 (d)
Reevaluate unreliable relevant decay data.
Sixteen laboratories and institutions from around the world collaborated in the project for which a fair number of specific reevaluations required additional crosssection and decaydata measurements, and these new experimental datasets were published elsewhere on a regular basis. All crosssection data were also reassessed and evaluated with the goal of producing recommended data with quantified uncertainties.
The physical yield (instantaneous production rate), activity generated during one hour irradiation with 1 μA beam current, and saturation yield defined in terms of an infinite irradiation were calculated from the recommended crosssection data. Results for direct and cumulative production routes, monoisotopic and enriched targets, and targets of naturallyoccurring isotopic compositions were considered. As agreed at subsequent research coordination meetings [8], a set of four papers are in preparation to deal individually with the production routes for γemitting diagnostic radionuclides [SPECT imaging, lead author F. T. Tárkányi (this report)], β^{+} emitters and generators (PET imaging, lead author F. T. Tárkányi), therapeutic radionuclides (lead author J.W. Engle), and reevaluated decay data (lead author A.L. Nichols). One additional paper on beam monitor reactions (lead author A. Hermanne) had already been published at the time of this submission [9].
The goal of this work is to report new modelindependent crosssection evaluations with uncertainties derived by leastsquares fits of statistically consistent experimental data. These evaluated data can be used to derive the physical yield for radionuclide production, and also aid in constraining calculations based upon nuclear reaction models.
The excitation functions for twentyone chargedparticle induced reactions have been assessed on the basis of their compilation, evaluation and a wellrecognised data fitting procedure. These studies have involved the formation of five specific SPECT radionuclides selected for study in this CRP [8]: ^{51}Cr, ^{99}Mo^{/99m}Tc, ^{111}In, ^{123}I and ^{201}Tl. Several other reactions were also considered for the formation of ^{99}Mo induced by photon and neutron beams to assess the production of the extremely important ^{99}Mo/^{99m}Tc generator. Our recent studies of various different routes for the selected radioisotopes are each discussed on an individual basis. After a short description of the decay data adopted for radionuclidic quantification and the medical applications for these radionuclides, the individual results for each production route are given, including figures that show (a) all compiled datasets, and (b) selected statistically consistent datasets (with experimental total uncertainties) along with the recommended fitted curve and uncertainty of the fit. Final figures for each dataset compare the integral physical yields for the medically relevant radionuclide that are based on the present recommended data for each route.
All evaluated cross sections and their uncertainties are available online at the IAEA Nuclear Data Section Web site wwwnds.iaea.org/medical/gamma_emitters.html and also at the IAEA medical portal wwwnds.iaea.org/medportal/. These Web pages include details of the evaluations, and the numerical data considered and adopted for analyses to generate the evaluated cross sections with their uncertainties and the corresponding production yields.
Evaluation, fitting and uncertainty estimates
All available literature sources containing relevant experimental data were used in the compilation process (primary journals, reports, conference abstracts and proceedings, yield compilations, reference databases, nuclear reaction databases such as EXFOR and NSR, PhD theses, etc.). Analyses and selection of the published experimental yields were based on detailed assessments of the measurement procedures including the determination of the particle energy, composition and nature of the target material, intensity of the beam, chemical separation processes, quantifying capabilities of measurement technique, nuclear data adopted, proper definition of the yield, and finally the aims of individual measurements and particularly attempts made to obtain precise values. Whenever needed and possible, known changes were introduced to adopted calibrant values (decay data and/or experimental parameters), as well as correcting conversion and computational errors. The compiled experimental data were also compared with the results of theoretical calculations based on the TALYS code system, and taken from the TENDL2015 and TENDL2017 libraries [10].
Corrected experimental data that exhibited large disagreements with the other datasets, unusual shapes, systematic energy shifts, and data significantly below the reaction threshold were rejected from the fitting procedure whereby a fully and statistically consistent dataset was established. Originally reported experimental uncertainties were considered when determining the variable uncertainties in the recommended consistent dataset. However, no proper quantified descriptions of the uncertainties are given in many publications, or the adopted measurements technique(s) imply that the quoted uncertainties had been significantly underestimated and merit correction to avoid excessive weight within the subsequent fitting process. This initiative has involved compilers who possess significant experience in experimental crosssection studies, which allows them to estimate the full functionality and accuracy of the experiments under consideration (i.e., sound subjective judgments can be made with respect to accelerator systems and laboratory facilities, identification of researchers with proven experience, and degree of technical application on production machines).
By and large, most contemporary evaluation procedures are based on various manifestations of the leastsquares method (e.g., see review [11] and references therein). The leastsquares method is the stateofart Bayesian approach that combines all available knowledge to derive the evaluated result and corresponding uncertainties. Evaluations undertaken in this paper are in most cases modelindependent evaluations free from potential model defects and deficiencies. However, such an approach implies that comprehensive and consistent experimental inputs should be available before the leastsquare fit is undertaken. When the status of the experimental data is appropriate, a purely statistical fit over the selected data points can be performed.
Along with a consistent consideration of the statistical uncertainties of the experimental data, the Padé method allows (a) determination of some systematic uncertainties in the data that are usually underestimated by their authors and (b) establishment of some implicit correlations of the data. The averaged deviation of the experimental data from the approximating function is regarded as the systematic uncertainty for each reaction, while the deviations of the experimental points from the approximant are regarded as the statistical uncertainties. An optimal description of all data is achieved by the traditional iteration procedure of minimising the meansquares deviations with respect to these statistical and systematic uncertainties. Whenever required and possible, we have attempted to correct the published experimental data and introduce realistic uncertainties, although the resulting fitting procedures still indicated that the systematic uncertainties of the experimental studies were being underestimated. Often the different experimental datasets for a given reaction show large systematic disagreements, without any obvious explanation. One reason could be that commerciallypurchased target thicknesses were not always checked by independent measurement which might result in erroneous estimations of the number of target nuclei. Another explanation is that experimental data are frequently measured relative to beammonitor reactions, but the monitoring technique is not properly applied: the incident energy is not checked, or possible deviations are not considered; and the complete excitation function of the monitor reactions is not simultaneously remeasured. Another issue is that the recommended crosssection data of the monitor reactions may change over the years, resulting in difficulties in establishing which monitor data were used in older publications. A further problem that cannot be addressed involves outdated decay data that do not linearly contribute to the crosssection dataset (i.e., halflife), because the timescales of the irradiation and the measuring process are not fully documented in the original publication.
Not all of the selected datasets are totally independent, but possess a certain degree of correlation. A significant number of the datasets were obtained by means of the stackedfoil irradiation technique in which the number of particles interacting with each foil is supposed to be constant and can be determined by application of the recommended beammonitoring data. Several studies involved the generation of datasets obtained from different experiments in which the samples were measured with the same detectors operated at the same efficiency and sourcetodetector distances. These correlations and the various correction factors are difficult to take into account in the evaluation, such that components of the systematic uncertainties are only partially considered. Therefore, an additional 4% systematic uncertainty was added to the experimental statistical uncertainties to obtain reasonable and realistic estimates of the evaluated uncertainties on the recommended excitation functions and their production yields.
Summary of the results from previous IAEA evaluations of cross sections for the production of diagnostic gamma emitters
Reaction  Radionuclide  Halflife  Decay (%)  Eγ (keV), P_{γ} (%)  Product  Halflife  Decay (%), Eγ (keV), P_{γ} (%)  Production route 

^{68}Zn(p,2n)^{67}Ga ^{67}Zn(p,n)^{67}Ga  ^{67}Ga  3.2617 d  EC 100  93.310, 38.81; 184.576, 21.410; 300.217, 16.64  Direct  
^{nat}Kr(p,x)^{81}Rb ^{82}Kr(p,2n)^{81}Rb  ^{81m}Kr  13.10 s  IT 99.9975 EC 0.0025  190.46, 67.66  ^{81}Rb  4.572 h  EC/β^{+} 100, β^{+}27.2 190.46, 64.9; 446.15, 23.5  Parent 
^{111}Cd(p,n)^{111}In ^{112}Cd(p,2n)^{111}In  ^{111}In  2.8047 d  EC 100  171.28, 90.7; 245.35, 94.1  Direct  
^{124}Xe(p,2n)^{123}Cs  ^{123}I  13.2235 h  EC 100  158.97, 83.3  ^{123}Cs  5.88 min  EC/β^{+} 100, β^{+}72 97.39, 22.7; 596.6, 10.1  Grandparent 
^{124}Xe(p,pn)^{123}Xe ^{124}Xe(p,x)^{123}Xe ^{127}I(p,5n)^{123}Xe  ^{123}I  13.2235 h  EC 100  158.97, 83.3  ^{123}Xe  2.08 h  EC/β^{+} 100, β^{+}22.6 148.9, 48.9; 178.1, 14.9  Parent 
^{127}I(p,3n)^{125}Xe  ^{125}I  59.407 d  EC 100  27.202, 39.6 (X Kα2); 27.472, 73.1 (X Kα1)  ^{125}Xe  16.9 h  EC/β^{+} 100, β^{+}0.300 188.418, 53.8; 243.378, 30.0  Impurity, parent 
^{123}Te(p,n)^{123}I ^{124}Te(p,2n)^{123}I  ^{123}I  13.2235 h  EC 100  158.97, 83.3  Direct  
^{124}Te(p,n)^{124}I  ^{124}I  4.1760 d  EC/β^{+} 100, β^{+}22.7  602.73, 62.9; 722.78, 10.36; 1690.96, 11.15  Impurity, β^{+} emitter  
^{203}Tl(p,3n)^{201}Pb  ^{201}Tl  3.0421 d  EC 100  167.43, 10.00  ^{201}Pb  9.33 h  EC/β^{+} 100, β^{+}0.064 331.15, 77; 361.25, 9.5; 584.60, 3.6; 692.41, 4.3  Parent 
^{203}Tl(p,4n)^{200}Pb  ^{200}Tl  26.1 h  EC/β^{+} 100, β^{+}0.401  367.942, 87; 579.300, 13.7  ^{200}Pb  21.5 h  EC 100 147.63, 38.2; 257.19, 4.52  Impurity, parent 
^{203}Tl(p,2n)^{202m}Pb  ^{202}Tl  12.31 d  EC 100  439.510, 91.5  ^{202m}Pb  3.54 h  IT 90.5, EC 9.5 422.12, 84; 657.49, 31.7; 786.99, 49; 960.70, 89.9  Impurity, parent 
Decay data used in the original crosssection evaluations were updated to the latest recommended values available from NuDat [19], as listed in Table 1.
Further evaluations of cross sections for the production of diagnostic gamma emitters
Overview of reactions studied
The list of SPECT radionuclides studied in this most recent coordinated research project has been extended to consider various production routes for widely used ^{99m}Tc and ^{51}Cr. New experimental data measurements since 2004 for production of ^{123}I, ^{111}In and ^{201}Tl have been included in this current series of evaluations based upon the development of suitable lists of possible production reactions. Due to the considerable importance of ^{99m}Tc and parent ^{99}Mo in medical applications, consideration has also been given to a number of different production routes including chargedparticle irradiations, neutroninduced reactions, and photon beams.
Decay data [19] and production routes of medical radionuclides under investigation—number of quoted digits for each quantity reflects the evaluated uncertainty
Radionuclide  Halflife  Decay (%)  Eγ (keV), Pγ (%)  Reaction  Product halflife  Decay (%) Eγ (keV), Pγ (%)  Fit  Production route 

Chargedparticle induced reactions  
^{51}Cr  27.704 d  EC 100  320.0824, 9.910  ^{51}V(p,n)^{51}Cr  Padé 12  Direct  
^{51}V(d,2n)^{51}Cr  Padé 12  Direct  
^{55}Mn(p,x)^{51}Cr  Padé 13  Cumulative  
^{55}Mn(d,x)^{51}Cr  Padé 4  Cumulative  
^{nat}Fe(p,x)^{51}Cr  Padé 21  Cumulative  
^{nat}Ti(α,x)^{51}Cr  Padé 11  Cumulative  
^{99m}Tc  6.0072 h  IT 99.9963 β^{−} 0.0037  140.511, 89  ^{100}Mo(p,x)^{99}Mo  65.924 h  β^{−} 100  Padé 23  Parent 
^{100}Mo(d,x)^{99}Mo  181.068, 6.05; 739.500, 12.20  Padé 6  Parent  
^{100}Mo(p,2n)^{99m}Tc  Padé 15  Direct  
^{100}Mo(d,3n)^{99m}Tc  Padé 6  Direct  
^{111}In  2.8047 d  EC 100  171.28, 90.7; 245.35, 94.1  ^{112}Cd(p,2n)^{111}In  Padé 9  Direct  
^{123}I  13.2235 h  EC 100  158.97, 83.3  ^{124}Xe(p,pn)^{123}Xe  2.08 h  EC/β^{+} 100, β^{+}22.6 148.9, 48.9; 178.1, 14.9  Padé 13  Parent 
^{124}Xe(p,2n)^{123}Cs  5.88 min  EC/β^{+} 100, β^{+}72 97.39, 22.7; 596.6, 10.1  Padé 13  Grandparent  
^{124}Xe(p,x)^{123}Xe  2.08 h  EC/β^{+} 100, β^{+}22.6 148.9, 48.9; 178.1, 14.9  Padé 16  Parent  
^{124}Xe(p,x)^{121}I  2.12 h  EC/β^{+} 100, β^{+}10.6 212.20, 84.3; 532.08, 6.1  Padé 18  Impurity  
^{201}Tl  3.0421 d  EC 100  167.43, 10.00  ^{203}Tl(p,3n)^{201}Pb  9.33 h  EC/β^{+} 100, β^{+}0.064 331.15, 77; 361.25, 9.5; 584.60, 3.6; 692.41, 4.3  Padé 13  Parent 
^{203}Tl(p,4n)^{200}Pb  21.5 h  EC 100 147.63, 38.2; 257.19, 4.52  Padé 5  Impurity  
^{203}Tl(p,2n)^{202m}Pb  3.54 h  IT 90.5, EC 9.5 422.12, 84; 657.49, 31.7; 786.99, 49; 960.70, 89.9  Padé 9  Impurity  
Photon and neutroninduced reactions  
^{99m}Tc  6.0072 h  β^{−} 0.0037,  140.511, 89  ^{100}Mo(γ,n)^{99}Mo  65.924 h  β^{−} 100  Padé 9  Parent 
IT 99.9963  ^{238}U(γ,f)^{99}Mo  181.068, 6.05; 739.500, 12.20  Padé 17  Parent  
^{98}Mo(n,γ)^{99}Mo  BROND3.1 (75group)  Parent  
^{100}Mo(n,2n)^{99}Mo  Padé 19  Parent 
Presentation of results

Systematic energy shift towards lower or higher energy,

Significantly higher and lower values, or unusual shape when compared with the main body of data or theory,

Crosssection data below the threshold, and

Relatively high degree of scattered data.
Almost in all cases, the data points within an individual reference were considered in this manner as a fundamental part of the selection/rejection process. Only in a few cases mainly involving significant outliers close to the threshold were individual data points omitted to improve the possibility of a proper fit. Original proton data published by Levkovskij were all corrected for the erroneous values of the ^{96m}Tc beam monitor. The factor used is described in detail with reference to new measurements and earlier discussions within Section II.K of the latest evaluation of monitor reactions [9].
Integral physical yields for the different production reactions of each radionuclide of specific or indirect medical interest are calculated from the recommended data, and are shown in separate figures at the end of each subsection.
Chargedparticle induced reactions
Reactions for the production of ^{51}Cr (T _{1/2} = 27.701 d)
Applications rather longlived ^{51}Cr is used to label red blood cells, and quantify gastrointestinal protein loss and glomerular filtration rate (especially in paediatrics).
Evaluations have been made of the ^{51}V(p,n)^{51}Cr, ^{51}V(d,2n)^{51}Cr, ^{55}Mn(p,x)^{51}Cr, ^{55}Mn(d,x)^{51}Cr, ^{nat}Fe(p,x)^{51}Cr, and ^{nat}Ti(α,x)^{51}Cr reactions.
^{51}V(p,n)^{51}Cr
^{51}V(d,2n)^{51}Cr
^{55}Mn(p,x)^{51}Cr
^{55}Mn(d,x)^{51}Cr
^{nat}Fe(p,x)^{51}Cr
^{nat}Ti(α,x)^{51}Cr
Integral yields for ^{51}Cr formation
Reactions for the production of ^{99m}Tc (T_{1/2} = 6.0072 h)
Applications^{99m}Tc is most commonly used to image the skeleton and heart muscle. Also has been applied to the brain, thyroid, lungs (perfusion and ventilation), liver, spleen, kidney (structure and filtration rate), gall bladder, bone marrow, salivary and lachrymal glands, heart blood pool, infection and many other specialised medical studies.
^{99m}Tc is the γemitting workhorse of diagnostic nuclear medicine (constitutes more than 70% of imaging procedures performed worldwide). Commercially distributed in the form of ^{99}Mo/^{99m}Tc generators whereby all ^{99}Mo is obtained from the fission of ^{235}U within thermal research reactors (^{99}Mo T_{1/2} = 65.924 h). Uncertainty in the sustainability of the supply chain caused by unexpected or progressive shutdown of aged research reactors has triggered a search for alternative reactions to be performed in accelerator systems. Significant attention has been devoted to both chargedparticle induced reactions by means of particle accelerators and photoninduced reactions by means of electron linear accelerators (linac).
Production routes under investigation

Indirect production via the ^{99}Mo/^{99m}Tc generator based on the ^{100}Mo(p,x)^{99}Mo and ^{100}Mo(d,x)^{99}Mo chargedparticle reactions (see below); ^{100}Mo(n,2n)^{99}Mo and ^{98}Mo(n,γ)^{99}Mo radiative neutron capture in reactors, and photoninduced reactions by means of linacs ^{100}Mo(γ,n)^{99}Mo and ^{238}U(γ,f)^{99}Mo (all four of these routes are analysed and discussed in the subsection entitled “^{99m}Tc and parent ^{99}Mo: photoninduced and neutroninduced reactions”).

Direct production by means of the ^{100}Mo(p,2n)^{99m}Tc and ^{100}Mo(d,3n)^{99m}Tc reactions (see below).
^{100}Mo(p,x)^{99}Mo
^{100}Mo(d,x)^{99}Mo
^{100}Mo(p,2n)^{99m}Tc
^{100}Mo(d,3n)^{99m}Tc
Integral yields for ^{99}Mo and ^{99m}Tc formation using proton/deuteron accelerators
Reaction for the production of ^{111}In (T_{1/2} = 2.8047 d)
Applications^{111}In is used for specialist diagnostic studies, such as the brain, colon transit, and infection. Also has been identified as a suitable candidate for radiotherapy.
^{112}Cd(p,2n)^{111}In
Integral yield for ^{111}In formation
Reactions for the production of ^{123}I (T_{1/2} = 13.2235 h)
Applications^{123}I is a standard radionuclide in the diagnosis of thyroid function and studies of the cardiac and nervous system. Complementary imaging has also been performed in conjunction with the emerging ^{124}I β^{+} emitter, and for radiotherapy in conjunction with ^{131}I β^{−} emitter.
Production routes for ^{123}I that employ tellurium and ^{124}Xe targets were evaluated as part of an earlier CRP [2, 3]. Following on from these studies, reevaluations have been made of a selection of nuclear reactions related to the production of ^{123}I precursors by protoninduced reactions on ^{124}Xe targets: ^{124}Xe(p,2n)^{123}Cs, ^{124}Xe(p,pn)^{123}Xe, and ^{124}Xe(p,x)^{123}Xe. Furthermore, an assessment has also been made of the formation of ^{121}I impurity by means of the ^{124}Xe(p,x)^{121}I reaction which limits the shelflife of ^{123}I.
^{124}Xe(p,2n)^{123}Cs
^{124}Xe(p,pn)^{123}Xe
^{124}Xe(p,x)^{123}Xe
^{124}Xe(p,x)^{121}I (reaction for generation of ^{121}I impurity)
Unavoidable contamination of ^{123}I by ^{121}I (T_{1/2} = 2.12 h, daughter product of coproduced ^{121}Cs^{121}Xe that decays to longlived ^{121}Te) by means of the reaction processes discussed above limits the shelflife of batches of ^{123}I [115].
Integral yields for ^{123}Cs–^{123}Xe (grandparent and parent of ^{123}I) and ^{121}I impurity formation
Reactions for the production of ^{201}Tl (T_{1/2} = 3.0421 d)
Applications^{201}Tl has been used for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, myocardial infarct and heart muscle death, and to locate lowgrade lymphomas.
Present commercial production is through the EC/β^{+} decay of parent ^{201}Pb obtained by means of the ^{203}Tl(p,3n)^{201}Pb reaction (adoption of 95% enriched ^{203}Tl targets) and double Tl–Pb separation chemistry. Quantitative knowledge of the unavoidable and simultaneous production of ^{200}Pb and ^{202m}Pb via the ^{203}Tl(p,4n)^{200}Pb and ^{203}Tl(p,2n)^{202m}Pb reactions is important from the point of view of radionuclidic purity (limits defined in pharmacopoeia).
^{203}Tl(p,3n)^{201}Pb
^{203}Tl(p,4n)^{200}Pb (impurity reaction)
^{203}Tl(p,2n)^{202m}Pb (impurity reaction)
Integral yields for ^{201}Tl formation
^{99m}Tc and parent ^{99}Mo: photoninduced and neutroninduced reactions
Consideration was given to various nonchargedparticle reactions for the production of parent ^{99}Mo to generate ^{99m}Tc, which involved the irradiation of particular molybdenum targets with photons or neutrons as well as the ^{238}U(γ,f) reaction.
^{100}Mo(γ,n)^{99}Mo
^{98}Mo(n,γ)^{99}Mo
Neutron cross sections at low energies possess resonance structure, an example of which is shown in Fig. 46 at an energy of ~ 12 eV as observed in a neutron capture experiment [146]. The number of resonances increases significantly with increasing energy, particularly over the neutron energy interval up to 10 keV as measured by Musgrove et al. [150]. Group representations of overlapping resonances in the form of averaged cross sections are usually adopted in such circumstances, and the TENDL2017 definition of this particular neutroncapture cross section is shown in Fig. 46 as a 75group assembly [10]. This TENDL2017 evaluation below 100 keV coincides closely with the ENDF/BVII.1 [128], JEFF3.2 [156], JENDL4.0 [157], and BROND3.1 [158] national and international neutron data libraries, whereby the same resonance parameters have often been used [159].
Reference [146] data were only adopted for neutron energies above 3 keV on the basis of their reasonable agreement with the highresolution data. Eight datasets were rejected because they contradict the main trends of all other data [136, 137, 138, 140, 141, 142, 143, 148]. A thermal neutron cross section of (130 ± 6) mb was adopted, as recommended by Mughabghab [159] on the basis of a consistent analysis of the experimental data and the resonance parameters. This value is also well supported by epithermal neutron data [155].
Complete consideration of the complex resonance structure of the evaluated data is not required to estimate the uncertainties of the recommended cross sections. Sufficient information can normally be gleaned from the uncertainties of the multigroup cross sections to achieve this objective. Such an approach is described in detail in Ref. [158], and these estimated uncertainties for the ^{98}Mo(n,γ)^{99}Mo reaction are shown in Fig. 47 (righthand scale).
^{100}Mo(n,2n)^{99}Mo
^{238}U(γ,f)^{99}Mo

(6.17 ± 0.86)% in the ENDF/BVII.1 library,

(5.65 ± 0.73)% in the NEAOECD JEFF3.2 library, and

6.12%, without any uncertainties in the Japanese JENDL4.0 library.
Integral yields for production of ^{99}Mo by gammaray and neutroninduced reactions
Derived in the form of a function, this energy is identical in shape to the excitation function. By knowing the energy distribution of the incident particle and the range of energy applied, the integral yield can be readily deduced.
Summary and conclusions
Significant improvements and substantial extensions have been made to the IAEANDS recommended crosssection database for the production of specific gammaemitting radionuclides. Evaluations of production cross sections and their uncertainties were performed on twentytwo reactions for direct, indirect and generator production of ^{51}Cr, ^{99}Mo/^{99m}Tc and ^{99m}Tc, ^{111}In, ^{123}Cs/^{123}Xe/^{123}I (and ^{121}I impurity), and ^{201}Pb/^{201}Tl (and ^{200}Pb and ^{202m}Pb impurities).
Additional production routes for ^{51}Cr, ^{99m}Tc and ^{123}I were explored, and some earlier evaluated nuclear reactions to produce ^{111}In and ^{201}Tl were also redefined. A Padé fitting method was applied to the selected datasets, and uncertainties in all of the recommended crosssection data were deduced following the evaluation methodology described and fully adopted in Ref. [9]. Known experimental data were compared with the theoretical predictions to be found in the TENDL2015 and 2017 libraries, and significant disagreements in the magnitude and shape of the resulting excitation functions existed in some cases (especially when considering isomeric states or deuteroninduced reactions). No major differences were found in the predictions of these two versions of the TENDL libraries, therefore, improved modelling is required. All of the recommended crosssection data have been used with reasonable confidence to determine integral yields for radionuclide production. Thus, the resulting datasets adopted in the present evaluation are seen as being acceptable for all practical purposes with good confidence. However, in a few cases, the data are more uncertain because of an existing lack of wellmeasured data.
Selection of the optimal reaction depends on many factors such as available beam particles and their achievable energy range, targetry and possible recovery problems with enriched target materials, production yield, impurities, and necessary chemical separation processes. The recommended cross sections are directly related to production yields and the acceptable levels of radioactive impurities. More specifically, improved radionuclidic purity is an important issue for practical applications in nuclear medicine. Under such circumstances, excitation functions for radionuclidic impurities are required to aid in defining optimum target compositions and the full energy range of the beam within the target in order to avoid or at least minimise their production. Recommendations concerning radioisotopic contaminants have only been made in the present evaluation for the production of ^{123}I with ^{124}Xe targets, and ^{201}Tl with ^{203}Tl targets. Other radionuclidic impurities need to be studied in what remains an important evolutionary programme of work.
Both the recommended excitation functions and production yields are available on the web page of the IAEA NDS at wwwnds.iaea.org/medical/gamma_emitters.html and also at the IAEA medical portal wwwnds.iaea.org/medportal/. These evaluated experimental data are important for existing and potential nuclear medicine applications, for improvement and validation of the various nuclear reaction models, and may also have useful roles in other fields of nonenergy related nuclear studies (e.g., activation analysis and thin layer activation).
Footnotes
 1.
E.g., see p.14 in A. Paterson et al (2015) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 305:13–22.
Notes
Acknowledgements
The contents and preparation of this paper involved the support and hard work of a large number of individuals and institutions. Our sincere thanks are extended to all colleagues who have contributed to this IAEA coordinated research project over the previous five years.
The IAEA is grateful to all participant laboratories for their assistance in the work, and their support of individual staff to attend CRP meetings and undertake related activities. We also acknowledge the valuable contributions made by I. Spahn (Forschungszentrum Jülich) during his attendance at specific project meetings. Work described in this paper would not have been possible without IAEA Member State contributions. Studies at ANL were supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract No. DEAC06CH11357.
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