Evaluation of the use of polyphosphates as photostabilizers and in the formation of ball-like polystyrene materials

  • Mohammad Hayal Alotaibi
  • Gamal A. El-HitiEmail author
  • Emad YousifEmail author
  • Dina S. Ahmed
  • Hassan Hashim
  • Ayad S. Hameed
  • Ahmed Ahmed


Polyphosphates have been used as polystyrene photostabilizers against ultraviolet irradiation for long period. The efficiency of polyphosphates was herein evaluated by the use various techniques that include determination of the weight loss, average molecular weight, chain-scission, and degree of deterioration, in addition to infrared spectroscopy of the polystyrene films following irradiation for up to 300 h at room temperature. The results showed that the addition of polyphosphates at low concentrations significantly enhanced the photostability of polystyrene. In addition, the surface morphologies of the polystyrene films were inspected by the use of optical, atomic force, and scanning electron microscopy. The surfaces of the polyphosphate-containing polystyrene films were significantly smoother and contained lower numbers of cracks compared to the blank films. Furthermore, the polyphosphate bearing ortho substituents was the most effective photostabilizer. Scanning electron microscopy of the polystyrene film containing this polyphosphate showed that after 300 h of irradiation, ball-like pores of varying diameters (3.25–4.26 μm) and shapes (ellipsoid and sphere) were present.


Polystyrene Polyphosphate Photodegradation Weight loss percentage Surface morphology Ball-like pore 



The authors extend their appreciation to the College of Applied Medical Sciences Research Centre and the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for their funding of this research and to the Universities of Al-Nahrain, Tikrit, and Al-Mansour College for their continued support.


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Copyright information

© The Polymer Society, Taipei 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Center for Petrochemicals TechnologyKing Abdulaziz City for Science and TechnologyRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of Optometry, College of Applied Medical SciencesKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry, College of ScienceAl-Nahrain UniversityBaghdadIraq
  4. 4.Department of Medical Instrumentation EngineeringAl-Mansour University CollegeBaghdadIraq
  5. 5.Department of Physics, College of ScienceAl-Nahrain UniversityBaghdadIraq
  6. 6.Department of Chemistry, College of ScienceTikrit UniversityTikritIraq
  7. 7.Polymer Research Unit, College of ScienceAl-Mustansiriyah UniversityBaghdadIraq

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