Effect of G40 plasticizer on the properties of ternary blends of biodegradable PLA/PBS/G40

  • Runglawan SomsunanEmail author
  • Sakaorat Noppakoon
  • Winita Punyodom


The ternary blends poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(ester adipate) (G40) were prepared and studied their properties by melt mixing method. It was found that the G40 influences the properties of PLA/PBS blends and the interfacial adhesion of PLA and PBS, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and an increase in the transparency. Tensile strength and modulus were found to decrease with increasing G40 content, which were in the range of 10–55 MPa and 200–1500 MPa respectively. The elongation at break of the blends increased when adding 5% of G40, indicating more flexibility when incorporate with G40. However, for higher amount of G40 than 10%, the elongation at break starts to decrease as G40 increased. This corresponds to thermal properties tests which showed that the glass transition temperature of the blends decreased as the amount of G40 increased. In addition, the water vapor permeability of the blends was also enhanced 50–200% by the incorporation of 5–15% of G40. In conclusion, it was confirmed that G40 has the potential to be a suitable plasticizer for PLA/PBS blends. This study provides useful guidelines for the future design and application of PLA/PBS/G40 blends for use as novel bioplastics.


Poly(lactic acid) Poly(butylene succinate) Poly(ester adipate) Plasticizer 



The research reported in this paper was partially supported by Chiang Mai University for financial support.


  1. 1.
    Calabrò PS, Grosso M (2018) Bioplastics and waste management. Waste Manag 78:800–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shah AA, Hasan F, Hameed A, Ahmed S (2008) Biological degradation of plastics: a comprehensive review. Biotechnol Adv 26(3):246–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Spierling S, Knüpffer E, Behnsen H, Mudersbach M, Endres HJ (2018) Bio-based plastics - a review of environmental, social and economic impact assessments (2018). J Clean Prod 185:476–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fornasiero P, Graziani M (2001) Renewable resources and renewable energy: a global challenge. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Li Y, Shimizu H (2007) Toughening of polylactide by melt blending with a biodegradable poly(ether) urethane elastomer. Macromol Biosci 7(7):921–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Qu Z, Bu J, Pan X, Hu X (2018) Probing the nanomechanical properties of PLA/PC blends compatibilized with compatibilizer and nucleation agent by AFM. J Polym Res 25(6):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gu K, Zhang K, Ren J, Zhan H (2008) Melt rheology of polylactide/ poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) blends. Carbohydr Polym 74:79–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ouchi T, Ohya Y (2004) Design of lactide copolymers as biomaterials. J Polym Sci A Polym Chem 42:453–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Long L, Zhao J, Li K, He LG, Qian XG, Liu CHY, Wang LM, Yang XQ, Sun J, Ren Y, Kang CS, Yuan XB (2016) Synthesis of star-branched PLA-b-PMPC copolymer micelles as long blood circulation vectors to enhance tumor-targeted delivery of hydrophobic drugs in vivo. Mater Chem Phys 180:184–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yang X, Clénet J, Xu H, Odelius K, Hakkarainen M (2015) Two step extrusion process: from thermarecycling of PHB to plasticized PLA by reactive extrusion grafting of PHB degradation products onto PLA chains. Macromolecules 48(8):2509–2518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baiardo M, Frisoni G, Scandola M (2003) Thermal and mechanical properties of plasticized poly(L-lactic acid). J Appl Polym Sci 90(7):1731–1738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ozdemir E, Hacaloglu J (2017) Characterizations of PLA-PEG blends involving organically modified montmorillonite. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 127:343–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Toncheva A, Mincheva R, Kancheva M, Manolova N, Markova N (2016) Antibacterial PLA/PEG electrospun fibers: comparative study between grafting and blending PEG. Eur Polym J 75:223–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Arrieta MP, Fortunati E, Dominici F, López J, Kenny JM (2015) Bionanocomposite films based on plasticized PLA–PHB/cellulose nanocrystal blends. Carbohydr Polym 121:265–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zembouai I, Kaci M, Bruzaud S, Benhamida A, Corre Y, Grohens Y (2013) A study of morphological, thermal, rheological and barrier properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co- 3-hydroxyvalerate)/polylactide blends prepared by melt mixing. Polym Test 32(5):842–851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yang XQ, Yuan ML, Li W, Zhang GY (2004) Synthesis and properties of collagen/polylactic acid blends. J Appl Polym Sci 94:1670–1675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Arruda LC, Magaton M, Bretas RES, Ueki MM (2015) Influence of chain extender on mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of blown films of PLA/PBAT blends. Polym Test 43:27–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bhatia A, Gupta RK, Bhattacharya SN, Choi HJ (2007) Compatibility of biodegradable poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) blends for packaging application. Korea-Aust Rheol J 19(3):125–131Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hao Y, Yang H, Pan H, Ran X, Zhang H (2018) The effect of MBS on the heat resistant, mechanical properties, thermal behavior and rheological properties of PLA/EVOH blend. J Polym Res 25(171):1–9Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Takagi J, Nemoto T, Takahashi T, Taniguchi T, Koyama K (2003) Mechanical properties of poly(L-lactic acid)/biodegradable polyester blend films. Seikei-Kakou 15:581–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hirotsu T, Nakayama K, Tagaki C, Watanabe T (2004) Plasma surface treatments of melt-extruded uniaxial blend sheets of PLLA/PBS. J Photopolym Sci Technol 17:179–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chen GX, Kim HS, Kim ES, Yoon JS (2005) Compatibilization-like effect of reactive organoclay on the poly(l-lactide)/poly(butylene succinate) blends. Polymer 46(25):11829–11836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shibata M, Inoue Y, Miyoshi M (2006) Mechanical properties, morphology, and crystallization behavior of blends of poly(l-lactide) with poly(butylene succinate-co-l-lactate) and poly(butylene succinate). Polymer 47(10):3557–3564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yokohara T, Yamaguchi M (2008) Structure and properties for biomass-based polyester blends of PLA and PBS. Eur Polym J 44:677–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Homklin R, Hongsriphan N (2013) Mechanical and thermal properties of PLA/PBS co-continuous blends adding nucleating agent. Energy Procedia 34:871–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Klingender RC (2008) Handbook of specialty elastomer. Taylor & Francis Group, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kunthadong P, Molloy R, Worajittiphon P, Leejarkpai T, Kaabbuathong N, Punyodom W (2015) Biodegradable plasticized blends of poly (L-lactide) and cellulose acetate butyrate: from blend preparation to biodegradability in real composting conditions. J Polym Environ 23(1):107–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Moore GF, Saunders SM (1997) Advances in biodegradable polymers. Rapra Technology Limited, ShropshireGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fischer EW, Sterzel HJ, Wegner G (1973) Investigation of the structure of solution grown crystals of lactide copolymers by means of chemical reaction. Kolloid-Zu Z-Polymer 251:980–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Van Krevelen DW (1990) Properties of polymers, 3rd edn. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sweet GE, Bell JP (1972) Multiple endotherm melting behavior in relation to polymer morphology. J Polym Sci B Polym Phys 10:1273–1283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Roberts RC (1970) The melting behavior of bulk crystallized polymers. J Polym Sci Part C Polym Lett 8:381–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lee S, Lee JW (2005) Characterization and processing of biodegradable polymer blends of poly (lactic acid) with poly (butylene succinate adipate). Korea-Aust Rheol J 17:71–77Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mofokeng JP, Luyt AS (2015) Morphology and thermal degradation studies of melt-mixed poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) biodegradable polymer blend nanocomposites with TiO2 as filler. Polym Test 45:93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Polymer Society, Taipei 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand

Personalised recommendations