Advertisement

Why do Youth Support their Families? A Person-Oriented Approach in Migrant and Native Families

  • Lara AumannEmail author
  • Peter F. Titzmann
Empirical Research
  • 64 Downloads

Abstract

Previous studies have observed high levels of family support of migrant adolescents. However, whether culture, context or migration explain this phenomenon remained unclear. This study investigated family support in high SES migrant and native families and identified family support subgroups and predictors as well as implications of subgroup-membership. Participants comprised 165 native Swiss (Mage = 15.9 years, 60.6% female) and 136 German migrants (Mage = 15.3 years, 64.7% female) in Switzerland and 187 native Germans in Germany (Mage = 15.3 years, 54.8% female). A person-oriented multi-group latent-class analysis identified three family support subgroups, which differed particularly in levels of emotional and instrumental family support. Migration was only associated with the medium family support subgroup, whereas family and context characteristics were associated with the high family support subgroup. Furthermore, the high family support subgroup reported the best psychosocial adjustment. These findings highlight that addressing different developmental contexts with person-oriented approaches can provide new insights in the understanding of adolescents’ adaptation processes.

Keywords

Family support Adolescents Migrants Psychosocial adjustment Comparative Latent-class analysis 

Notes

Authors’ Contributions

L.A. conceived of the study, performed the statistical analysis, interpreted the data, and drafted the manuscript; P.F.T. coordinated the study, performed the measurement, participated in the concept of the study and helped to draft the manuscript and to interpret the data. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding

The data originated from two projects: “Adolescent Immigrants from Germany in Switzerland: Challenged or fostered?” funded by the Foundation Suzanne and Hans Biäsch and “Culture-brokering as Opportunity and Risk for Adolescent Immigrants” funded by the Jacobs Foundation.

Data Sharing Declaration

The datasets generated and/or analyzed during the current study are not publicly available but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Behnke, A. O., MacDermid, S. M., Coltrane, S. L., Parke, R. D., Duffy, S., & Widaman, K. F. (2008). Family Cohesion in the Lives of Mexican American and European American Parents. Journal of Marriage and Family, 70(4), 1045–1059.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2008.00545.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Benbow, A. E. F., & Aumann, L. (2019). The role of comparative research in understanding the diversity of immigrant youth. In P. F. Titzmann, & P. Jugert (Eds.), Youth in Superdiverse Societies. Growing up with globalization, diversity, and acculturation. Routledge. Accepted for publication.Google Scholar
  3. Bergman, L. R., Magnusson, D., El Khouri, B. M., Bergman, L. R., Magnusson, D., & El Khouri, B. M. (2003). General methodological considerations. Studying Individual Development in an Interindividual Context (pp. 28–51). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bernerth, J. B., & Aguinis, H. (2016). A critical review and best‐practice recommendations for control variable usage. Personnel Psychology, 69(1), 229–283.  https://doi.org/10.1111/peps.12103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blakemore, S.-J. (2012). Development of the social brain in adolescence. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 105(3), 111–116.  https://doi.org/10.1258/jrsm.2011.110221.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Bornstein, M. H. (2017). The specificity principle in acculturation science. Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science, 12(1), 3–45.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691616655997.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1986). Ecology of the family as a context for human development: research perspectives. Developmental Psychology, 22(6), 723–742.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.22.6.723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dickson, M., Gregg, P., & Robinson, H. (2016). Early, late or never? When does parental education impact child outcomes? Economic Journal (London, England), 126, F184–F231.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ecoj.12356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Engler, M., Erlinghagen, M., Ette, A., Sauer, L., Scheller, F., Schneider, J., et al. (2015). Motive, Rahmenbedingungen und Folgen der Aus- und Rückwanderung deutscher Staatsbürger. Sachverständigenrat deutscher Stiftungen für Integration und Migration (SVR), Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung (BiB) und Lehrstuhl für Empirische Sozialstrukturanalyse an der Universität Duisburg-Essen.Google Scholar
  10. Eurofound (2015). Sechste Europäische Erhebung über die Arbeitsbedingungen 2015 (Europäische Stiftung zur Verbesserung der Lebens- und Arbeitsbedingungen). Retrived from https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/de/surveys/european-working-conditions-surveys/sixth-european-working-conditions-survey-2015.
  11. Eurostat (2017). Zahl der geleisteten Wochenstunden bei Vollzeitbeschäftigten. Retrived from https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/de/web/products-datasets/-/TPS00071.
  12. Favell, A. (2008). Eurostars and Eurocities: free movement and mobility in an integrating Europe. Malden/Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fuligni, A. J., & Pedersen, S. (2002). Family obligation and the transition to young adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 38(5), 856–868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fuligni, A. J., & Telzer, E. H. (2013). Another way family can get in the head and under the skin: the neurobiology of helping the family. Child Development Perspectives, 7(3), 138–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fuligni, A. J., Tseng, V., & Lam, M. (1999). Attitudes toward family obligations among American adolescents with Asian, Latin American, and European backgrounds. Child Development, 70(4), 1030–1044.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Garcia-Retamero, R., & López-Zafra, E. (2009). Causal attributions about feminine and leadership roles: a cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40(3), 492–509.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022108330991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Goodman, W. B., Crouter, A. C., Lanza, S. T., Cox, M. J., & Vernon-Feagans, L., The Family Life Project Key, I. (2011). Paternal work stress and latent profiles of father–infant parenting quality. Journal of Marriage and Family, 73(3), 588–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Graham, J. W, Cumsille, P. E, Elek-Fisk, E, Schinka, J. A., & Velicer, W. F. 2003). Methods for handling missing data. In Handbook of psychology: research methods in psychology. (pp. 87–114). Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  19. Greenhaus, J. H., & Beutell, N. J. (1985). Sources of conflict between work and family roles. The Academy of Management Review, 10(1), 76–88.  https://doi.org/10.2307/258214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Helbling, M. (2011). Why Swiss-Germans dislike Germans. European Societies, 13(1), 5–27.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14616696.2010.533784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hofstede, G. H. (2001). Culture’s consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  22. Hooper, L. M., & Levesque, R. J. R. (2011). Parentification. In Encyclopedia of Adolescence (pp. 2023–2031). New York, NY: Springer New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hooper, L. M., Tomek, S., Bond, J. M., & Reif, M. S. (2014). Race/ethnicity, gender, parentification, and psychological functioning: comparisons among a nationwide university sample. The Family Journal, 23(1), 33–48.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1066480714547187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jurkovic, G. J. (1997). Lost childhoods: the plight of the parentified child (lost childhoods: the plight of the parentified child.). Philadelphia, PA US: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  25. Jurkovic, G. J., & Thirkield, A. (1998). Parentification questionnaire. Atlanta, GA: Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, University Plaza.Google Scholar
  26. Kam, J., & Lazarevic, V. (2014). Communicating for One’s Family: An Interdisciplinary Review of Language and Cultural Brokering in Immigrant Families. Annals of the International Communication Association, 38(1), 3–37.Google Scholar
  27. Katsiaficas, D. (2018). Infusing the study of social responsibilities with an intersectional approach. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2018(161), 39–56.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cad.20249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Keijsers, L., Branje, S. J. T., VanderValk, I. E., & Meeus, W. (2010). Reciprocal effects between parental solicitation, parental control, adolescent disclosure, and adolescent delinquency. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20(1), 88–113.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2009.00631.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kosner, A., Roer-Strier, D., & Kurman, J. (2014). Changing familial roles for immigrant adolescents from the former Soviet Union to Israel. Journal of Adolescent Research, 29(3), 356–379.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0743558413508202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lachance-Grzela, M., & Bouchard, G. (2010). Why do women do the lion’s share of housework? A decade of research. Sex Roles, 63(11), 767–780.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-010-9797-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lotz, G. (1984). Streß, Bewältigung und soziale Kompetenz bei Schülern. Frankfurt:Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  32. Michel, J. S., Kotrba, L. M., Mitchelson, J. K., Clark, M. A., & Baltes, B. B. (2011). Antecedents of work–family conflict: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(5), 689–725.  https://doi.org/10.1002/job.695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mika, P., Bergner, R. M., & Baum, M. C. (1987). The development of a scale for the assessment of parentification. Family Therapy, 14(3), 229–235.Google Scholar
  34. Newman, D. (2014). Missing data. Organizational Research Methods, 17, 372–411.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428114548590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pederson, S., & Revenson, T. A. (2005). Parental illness, family functioning, and adolescent well-being: a family ecology framework to guide research. Journal of Family Psychology, 19(3), 404–419.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.19.3.404.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Peris, T. S., Goeke-Morey, M. C., Cummings, E. M., & Emery, R. E. (2008). Marital conflict and support seeking by parents in adolescence: empirical support for the parentification construct. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(4), 633–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Portes, A. (1997). Immigration theory for a new century: some problems and opportunities. The International Migration Review, 31(4), 799–825.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2547415.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Portes, A., Fernández-Kelly, P., & Haller, W. (2005). Segmented assimilation on the ground: the new second generation in early adulthood. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 28(6), 1000–1040.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870500224117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Prince Cooke, L., & Baxter, J. (2010). “Families” in international context: comparing institutional effects across western societies. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(3), 516–536.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00716.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ray, R. (2008). A detailed look at parental leave policies in 21 OECD countries (C. f. E. a. P. Research, Trans.). Washington, DC: Center for Economic and Policy Research.Google Scholar
  41. Roeters, A., Lippe, T. V. D., & Kluwer, E. S. (2010). Work characteristics and parent‐child relationship quality: the mediating role of temporal involvement. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(5), 1317–1328.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00767.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schwarzer, R., Jerusalem, M., Weinman, J., Wright, S., & Johnston, M. (1995). Generalized self-efficacy scale. In Measures in health psychology: a user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35–37). Windsor, England: NFER-NELSON.Google Scholar
  43. Shen, Y., Kim, S. Y., & Benner, A. D. (2019). Burdened or efficacious? Subgroups of Chinese American language brokers, predictors, and long-term outcomes. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 48(1), 154–169.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-018-0916-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Shortt, J. W., Stoolmiller, M., Smith‐Shine, J. N., Eddy, J. M., & Sheeber, L. (2010). Maternal emotion coaching, adolescent anger regulation, and siblings’ externalizing symptoms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(7), 799–808.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02207.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Silbereisen, R. K., Eyferth, K., Silbereisen, R. K., Eyferth, K., & Rudinger, G. (1986). Development as action in context. In Development as action in context: problem behavior and normal youth development (pp. 3–16). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Stattin, H., & Kerr, M. (2000). Parental monitoring: a reinterpretation. Child Development, 71(4), 1072–1085.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00210.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Stock, G., Bertram, H., Fürnkranz-Prskawetz, A., Holzgreve, W., Kohli, M., & Staudinger, U. M. (2012). Zukunft mit Kindern. Fertilität und gesellschaftliche Entwicklung in Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Frankfurt/New York, NY: Campus Verlag.Google Scholar
  48. Suarez-Orozco, C., Motti-Stefanidi, F., Marks, A., & Katsiaficas, D. (2018). An integrative risk and resilience model for understanding the adaptation of immigrant-origin children and youth. American Psychology, 73(6), 781–796.  https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Telzer, E. H., & Fuligni, A. J. (2009). Daily family assistance and the psychological well-being of adolescents from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds. Developmental Psychology, 45(4), 1177–1189.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014728.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Titzmann, P. F. (2012). Growing up too soon? Parentification among immigrant and native adolescents in Germany. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(7), 880–893.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-011-9711-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Titzmann, P. F., & Lee, R. M. (2018). Adaptation of young immigrants: a developmental perspective on acculturation research. European Psychologist, 23(1), 72–82.  https://doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040/a000313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Trickett, E. J., & Jones, C. J. (2007). Adolescent culture brokering and family functioning: a study of families from Vietnam. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13(2), 143–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tse, L. (1995). Language Brokering among Latino adolescents: prevalence, attitudes, and school performance. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 17(2), 180–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. United Nations (2017). International Migration Report 2017: Highlights. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/publications/migrationreport/docs/MigrationReport2017_Highlights.pdf.
  55. Updegraff, K. A., McHale, S. M., Whiteman, S. D., Thayer, S. M., & Delgado, M. Y. (2005). Adolescent sibling relationships in Mexican American families: exploring the role of familism. Journal of Family Psychology, 19(4), 512–522.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.19.4.512.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. van de Vijver, F. J. R., & Poortinga, Y. H. (2002). Structural equivalence in multilevel research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33(2), 141–156.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022102033002002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Vatter, A., Ledermann, S., Sager, F., & Zollinger, L. (2004). Familienpolitik auf Bundesebene. Bern, Büro Vatter: Im Auftrag des Bundesamts für Sozialversicherung.Google Scholar
  58. Wang, Z., & Miller, J. G. (2019). Cost and family obligation in everyday sacrifice to parents among European American and Chinese emerging adults. Cross-Cultural Research, 1069397119863422,  https://doi.org/10.1177/1069397119863422.
  59. Williams, G. A., Kibowski, F., Jason, L. A., & Glenwick, D. S. (2016). Latent class analysis and latent profile analysis. Handbook of methodological approached to community-based research. Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods (pp. 143–153). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyLeibniz University HanoverHanoverGermany

Personalised recommendations