Advertisement

When is Parental Monitoring Effective? A Person-centered Analysis of the Role of Autonomy-supportive and Psychologically Controlling Parenting in Referred and Non-referred Adolescents

  • Ana Rodríguez-Meirinhos
  • Maarten Vansteenkiste
  • Bart Soenens
  • Alfredo Oliva
  • Katrijn Brenning
  • Lucía Antolín-SuárezEmail author
Empirical Research

Abstract

Over the last few years, the protective role of parental monitoring on adolescent adjustment (i.e., active parental efforts aimed at setting limits and tracking adolescents’ activities and whereabouts) has been challenged. Recent research has shifted attention to the conditions under which monitoring may be more or less effective. Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, this study investigated the role of parents’ autonomy-supportive and psychologically controlling parenting in effects of parental monitoring on adolescents’ adjustment. It also considered the role of adolescents’ clinical status (i.e., clinically referred vs non-referred). Adopting a person-centered approach, we aimed to identify naturally occurring profiles of monitoring, autonomy-support, and psychological control and to examine differences between these profiles in terms of life satisfaction, positive affect, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Participants included 218 referred (Mage = 14.44, 56% girls) and 218 matched adolescents from a larger sample of 1056 community (Mage = 14.83, 52.9% girls). Multigroup Latent Profile Analyses revealed five parenting profiles which were structurally equivalent in both samples: high monitoring with either high autonomy support or high psychological control, low monitoring with either high autonomy-support or high psychological control, and an average profile. Referred youth were significantly more present in the average profile and in the profiles characterized by high levels of psychological control. As hypothesized, profiles showed a differential association with adolescents’ self-reported adjustment, with the high monitoring—high autonomy support profile yielding the most optimal and the low monitoring—high psychological control profile yielding the worst outcomes. Associations between profiles and outcomes were similar for referred and non-referred adolescents. These findings highlight the importance of considering the parenting climate (i.e., autonomy-supportive versus psychologically controlling) to understand effects of parental monitoring during adolescence.

Notes

Authors’ Contributions

ARM participated in the design and coordination of the study, drafted the manuscript, performed the measurement, conducted the statistical analyses, and interpreted the findings; MV helped to draft the manuscript and participated in the interpretation of the findings; BS helped to draft the manuscript and participated in the interpretation of the findings; AO participated in the design and coordination of the study, helped to draft the manuscript and participated in the interpretation of the findings; KB helped to draft the manuscript and participated in the interpretation of the findings; LAS conceived the study, participated in its design and coordination, helped to draft the manuscript and performed the measurement. All the authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding

This study was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Education and Professional Training by a research grant awarded to the first author (grant number: FPU 14/02888).

Data Sharing Declaration

The datasets generated and/or analyzed during the current study are not publicly available but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures involving human participants in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Biomedical Research Ethics Review Board of Andalucia (Spain) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study and their legal guardians.

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms and profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.Google Scholar
  2. Ahmad, I., Smetana, G. J., & Klimstra, T. (2015). Maternal monitoring, adolescent disclosure, and adolescent adjustment among Palestinian refugee youth in Jordan. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 25(3), 403–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen, E. S., Grolnick, W. S., & Córdova, J. V. (2019). Evaluating a Self-Determination Theory-based preventive parenting consultation: the parent check-in. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 28(4), 732–743.Google Scholar
  4. Atienza, F. L., Pons, D., Balaguer, I., & García-Merita, M. (2000). Psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Life scale in adolescents. Psicothema, 12(2), 314–319.Google Scholar
  5. Aunola, K., Viljaranta, J., & Tolvanen, A. (2017). Does daily distress make parents prone to using psychologically controlling parenting? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 41(3), 405–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bacchini, D., Concetta-Miranda, M., & Affuso, G. (2011). Effects of parental monitoring and exposure to community violence on antisocial behavior and anxiety/depression among adolescents. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(2), 269–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barber, B. K. (1996). Parental psychological control: revisiting a neglected construct. Child Development, 67(6), 3296–3319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boyce, W., Torsheim, T., Currie, C., & Zambon, A. (2006). The Family Affluence Scale as a measure of national wealth: Validation of an adolescent self-report measure. Social Indicators Research, 78, 473–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brenning, K., Antrop, I., Van Petegem, S., Soenens, B., De Meulenaere, J., Rodríguez-Meirinhos, A. et al. (2019). I won’t obey!: psychologically controlling parenting and (non)-clinical adolescents’ responses to rule-setting. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 75(6), 1034–1046.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cabrera, N. J., Fagan, J., Wight, V., & Schadler, C. (2011). The influence of mother, father, and child risk on parenting and children’s cognitive and social behaviors. Child Development, 82, 1985–2005.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Caron, A., Weiss, B., Harris, V., & Catron, T. (2006). Parenting behavior dimensions and child psychopathology: specificity, task dependency, and interactive relations. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35(1), 34–45.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Costa, S., Cuzzocrea, F., Gugliandolo, M. C., & Larcan, R. (2016). Associations between parental psychological control and autonomy support, and psychological outcomes in adolescents: The mediating role of need satisfaction and need frustration. Child Indicators Research, 9(4), 1059–1076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Costello, E. J., Copeland, W., & Angold, A. (2011). Trends in psychopathology across the adolescent years: what changes when children become adolescents, and when adolescents become adults? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(10), 1015–1025.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crocetti, E., Van der Graaff, J., Moscatelli, S., Keijsers, L., Koot, H. M., Rubini, M. et al. (2016). A longitudinal study on the effects of parental monitoring on adolescent antisocial behaviors: the moderating role of adolescent empathy. Frontiers in Psychology,  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01726
  15. Darling, N., & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting style as context: an integrative model. Psychological Bulletin, 113(3), 487–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. De Los Reyes, A., & Ohannessian, C. M. (2016). Introduction to the special issue: discrepancies in adolescent–parent perceptions of the family and adolescent adjustment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45(10), 1957–1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Diener, E. D., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dishion, T. J., & McMahon, R. J. (1998). Parental monitoring and the prevention of child and adolescent problem behavior: a conceptual and empirical formulation. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 1(1), 61–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dishion, T. J., Nelson, S. E., & Kavanagh, K. (2003). The family check-up with high-risk young adolescents: preventing early-onset substance use by parent monitoring. Behavior Therapy, 34(4), 553–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Enzle, M. E., & Anderson, S. C. (1993). Surveillant intentions and intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(2), 257–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ewing, B. A., Osilla, K. C., Pedersen, E. R., Hunter, S. B., Miles, J. N., & D’Amico, E. J. (2015). Longitudinal family effects on substance use among an at-risk adolescent sample. Addictive Behaviors, 41, 185–191.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Farkas, M. S., & Grolnick, W. S. (2010). Examining the components and concomitants of parental structure in the academic domain. Motivation and Emotion, 34(3), 266–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grolnick, W. S., & Pomerantz, E. M. (2009). Issues and challenges in studying parental control: toward a new conceptualization. Child Development Perspectives, 3(3), 165–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grolnick, W. S., Raftery-Helmer, J. N., Marbell, K. N., Flamm, E. S., Cardemil, E. V., & Sanchez, M. (2014). Parental provision of structure: implementation and correlates in three domains. Merril-Palmer Quarterly, 60(3), 355–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Grolnick, W. S., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. (1991). Inner resources for school achievement: motivational mediators of children’s perceptions of their parents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(4), 508–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hamza, C. A., & Willoughby, T. (2011). Perceived parental monitoring, adolescent disclosure, and adolescent depressive symptoms: a longitudinal examination. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(7), 902–915.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Inguglia, C., Liga, F., Lo Coco, A., Musso, P., & Ingoglia, S. (2018). Satisfaction and frustration of autonomy and relatedness needs: associations with parenting dimensions and psychological functioning. Motivation and Emotion, 42(5), 691–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Joussemet, M., Landry, R., & Koestner, R. (2008). A Self-Determination Theory perspective on parenting. Canadian Psychology, 49(3), 194–200.Google Scholar
  29. Joussemet, M., Mageau, G. A., & Koestner, R. (2014). Promoting optimal parenting and children’s mental health: a preliminary evaluation of the how-to parenting program. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23(6), 949–964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Joussemet, M., Mageau, G. A., Larose, M. P., Briand, M., & Vitaro, F. (2018). How to talk so kids will listen & listen so kids will talk: a randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of the how-to parenting program on children’s mental health compared to a wait-list control group. BMC Paediatrics.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-018-1227-3
  31. Keijsers, L., Branje, S. J. T., VanderValk, I. E., & Meeus, W. (2010). Reciprocal effects between parental solicitation, parental control, adolescent disclosure, and adolescent delinquency. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20(1), 88–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Keijsers, L., & Laird, R. D. (2014). Mother–adolescent monitoring dynamics and the legitimacy of parental authority. Journal of Adolescence, 37(5), 515–524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kerr, M., & Stattin, H. (2000). What parents know, how they know it, and several forms of adolescent adjustment: further support for a reinterpretation of monitoring. Developmental Psychology, 36, 366–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kerr, M., & Stattin, H. (2003). Parenting of adolescents: action or reaction? In A. Booth & A. C. Crouter (Eds), Children’s influence on family dynamics: the neglected side of family relationships (pp. 121–151). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  35. Kerr, M., Stattin, H., & Burk, W. J. (2010). A reinterpretation of parental monitoring in longitudinal perspective. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20(1), 39–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kincaid, C., Jones, D.J., Sterrett, E., & McKee, L. (2012). A review of parenting and adolescent sexual behavior: the moderating role of gender. Clinical Psychology Review, 32(3), 177–188.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. LaFleur, L. K., Zhao, Y., Zeringue, M. M., & Laird, R. D. (2016). Warmth and legitimacy beliefs contextualize adolescents’ negative reactions to parental monitoring. Journal of Adolescence, 51, 58–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Laird, R. D., Marrero, M. D., & Sentse, M. (2010). Revisiting parental monitoring: evidence that parental solicitation can be effective when needed most. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(12), 1431–1441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Laird, R. D., Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E., & Dodge, K. A. (2003). Parents’ monitoring-relevant knowledge and adolescents’ delinquent behavior: evidence of correlated developmental changes and reciprocal influences. Child Development, 74(3), 752–768.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lamborn, S. D., Mounts, N. S., Steinberg, L., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1991). Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families. Child Development, 62(5), 1049–1065.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lansford, J. E., Godwin, J., Al-Hassan, S. M., Bacchini, D., Bornstein, M. H., Chang, L., Chen, B. B. et al. (2018). Longitudinal associations between parenting and youth adjustment in twelve cultural groups: cultural normativeness of parenting as a moderator. Developmental Psychology, 54(2), 362–377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Larson, R. W., Richards, M. H., Moneta, G., Holmbeck, G., & Duckett, E. (1996). Changes in adolescents’ daily interactions with their families from ages 10 to 18: disengagement and transformation. Developmental Psychology, 32(4), 744–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Laurin, J. C., & Joussemet, M. (2017). Parental autonomy-supportive practices and toddlers’ rule internalization: a prospective observational study. Motivation and Emotion, 41(5), 562–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. López-Gómez, I., Hervás, G., & Vázquez, C. (2015). An adaptation of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedules (PANAS) in a Spanish general sample. Psicología Conductual, 23(3), 529–548.Google Scholar
  45. Mabbe, E., Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., van der Kaap-Deeder, J., & Mouratidis, T. (2018). Day-to-day variation in autonomy-supportive and psychologically controlling parenting: the role of parents’ daily experiences of need satisfaction and need frustration. Parenting Science and Practice, 18(2), 86–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mann, F. D., Kretsch, N., Tackett, J. L., Harden, K. P., & Tucker-Drob, E. M. (2015). Person × environment interactions on adolescent delinquency: sensation seeking, peer deviance and parental monitoring. Personality and Individual Differences, 76, 129–134.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mason, C. A., Cauce, A. M., Gonzales, N., & Hiraga, Y. (1996). Neither too sweet nor too sour: problem peers, maternal control, and problem behavior in African American adolescents. Child Development, 67(5), 2115–2130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mackler, J. S., Kelleher, R. T., Shanahan, L., Calkins, S. D., Keane, S. P., & O’Brien, M. (2015). Parenting stress, parental reactions, and externalizing behavior from ages 4 to 10. Journal of Marriage and Family, 77(2), 388–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Musci, R. J., Uhl, G., Maher, B., & Ialongo, N. S. (2015). Testing gene × environment moderation of tobacco and marijuana use trajectories in adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83(5), 866–874.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Olivera-Aguilar, M., & Rikoon, S. H. (2018). Assessing measurement invariance in multiple-group latent profile analysis. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 25(3), 439–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pinquart, M. (2017a). Associations of parenting dimensions and styles with externalizing problems of children and adolescents: an updated meta-analysis. Developmental Psychology, 53(5), 873–932.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pinquart, M. (2017b). Associations of parenting dimensions and styles with internalizing symptoms in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Marriage & Family Review, 53(7), 613–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Putnick, D. L., Bornstein, M. H., Hendricks, C., Painter, K. M., Suwalsky, J. T. D., & Collins, W. A. (2008). Parenting stress, perceived parenting behaviors, and adolescent self-concept in European American families. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(5), 752–762.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Racz, S. J., & McMahon, R. J. (2011). The relationship between parental knowledge and monitoring and child and adolescent conduct problems: a 10-year update. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14(4), 377–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ratelle, C. F., Morin, A. J. S., Guat, F., & Duchesne, S. (2018). Sources of evaluation of parental behaviors as predictors of achievement outcomes. Motivation and Emotion, 42(4), 513–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rekker, R., Keijsers, L., Branje, S., Koot, H., & Meeus, W. (2017). The interplay of parental monitoring and socioeconomic status in predicting minor delinquency between and within adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 59, 155–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rodríguez-Meirinhos, A., Antolín-Suárez, L., Brenning, K., Vansteenkiste, M., & Oliva, A. (2019). A bright and a dark path to adolescents’ functioning: the role of need satisfaction and need frustration across gender, age, and socioeconomic status. Journal of Happiness Studies.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-018-00072-9
  58. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2017). Self-Determination Theory. Basic psychological needs in motivation, development and wellness. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  59. Sameroff, A. (2009). The transactional model of development: How children and contexts shape each other. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Salvatore, J. E., Aliev, F., Bucholz, K., Agrawal, A., Hesselbrock, V., Hesselbrock, M., Bauer, L. et al. (2015). Polygenic risk for externalizing disorders: gene-by-development and gene-by-environment effects in adolescents and young adults. Clinical Psychological Science, 3(2), 189–201.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Savard, A., Joussemet, M., Emond Pelletier, J., & Mageau, G. A. (2013). The benefits of autonomy-support for adolescents with severe emotional and behavioral problems. Motivation and Emotion, 37(4), 688–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sher-Censor, E., Assor, A., & Oppenheim, D. (2015). The interplay between observed maternal perspective taking and clear expectations: links with male adolescents’ externalizing and internalizing problems. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(4), 930–936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Soenens, B., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2010). A theoretical upgrade of the concept of parental psychological control: proposing new insights on the basis of Self-Determination Theory. Developmental Review, 30(1), 74–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., & Beyers, W. (2019). Parenting adolescents. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting, Vol. 1: parenting across the lifespan (pp. 111–167). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  65. Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., Luyckx, K., Goossens, L., Beyers, W. et al. (2007). Conceptualizing parental autonomy-support: adolescent perceptions of promotion of independence versus promotion of volitional functioning. Developmental Psychology, 43(3), 633–646.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Luyckx, K., & Goossens, L. (2006). Parenting and adolescent problem behaviors: an integrated model with adolescent self-disclosure and perceived parental knowledge as intervening variables. Developmental Psychology, 42(2), 305–318.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., & Niemiec, C. P. (2009). Should parental prohibition of adolescents’ peer relationships be prohibited? Personal Relationships, 16(4), 507–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., & Van Petegem, S. (2015). Let us not throw out the baby with the bathwater: applying the principle of ‘universalism without uniformity’ to autonomy-supportive and controlling parenting. Child Development Perspectives, 9(1), 44–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Van Petegem, S., Beyers, W., & Ryan, R.M. (2018). How to solve the conundrum of adolescent autonomy? On the importance of distinguishing between independence and volitional functioning. In B. Soenens, M. Vansteenkiste, & S. Van Petegem (Eds), Autonomy in adolescent development: towards conceptual clarity (pp. 1–32). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  70. Stattin, H., & Kerr, M. (2000). Parental monitoring: a reinterpretation. Child Development, 71, 1072–1085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Steinberg, L., Fletcher, A., & Darling, N. (1994). Parental monitoring and peer influences on adolescent substance use. Pediatrics, 93(6), 1060–1063.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Thompson, K., Roemer, A., & Leadbeater, B. (2015). Impulsive personality, parental monitoring, and alcohol outcomes from adolescence through young adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Health, 57(3), 320–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Tiernan, K., Foster, S. L., Cunningham, P. B., Brennan, P., & Whitmore, E. (2015). Predicting early positive change in multisystemic therapy with youth exhibiting antisocial behaviors. Psychotherapy, 52(1), 93–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tilton-Weaver, L. C., Burk, W. J., Kerr, M., & Stattin, H. (2013). Can parental monitoring and peer management reduce the selection or influence of delinquent peers? Testing the question using a dynamic social network approach. Developmental Psychology, 49(11), 2057–2070.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Trucco, E. M., Villafuerte, S., Heitzeg, M. M., Burmeister, M., & Zucker, R. A. (2016). Susceptibility effects of GABA receptor subunit alpha-2 variants and parental monitoring on externalizing behavior trajectories: risk and protection conveyed by the minor allele. Development and Psychopathology, 28(1), 15–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Van Leeuwen, K. G., Mervielde, I., De Clerco, B. J., & De Fruyt, F. (2007). Extending the spectrum idea: child personality, parenting and psychopathology. European Journal of Personality, 21(1), 63–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Van Petegem, S., Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., & Beyers, W. (2015). Rebels with a cause? Adolescent defiance from the perspective of reactance theory and Self-Determination Theory. Child Development, 86(3), 903–918.Google Scholar
  78. Van Petegem, S., Vansteenkiste, M., Soenens, B., Zimmermann, G., Antonietti, J. P., Baudat, S., & Audenaert, E. (2017). When do adolescents accept or defy to maternal prohibitions? The role of social domain and communication style. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(5), 1022–1037.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Vansteenkiste, M., Aelterman, N., De Muynck, G., Haerens, J., Patall, E., & Reeve, J. (2018). Fostering personal meaning and self-relevance: a Self-Determination Theory perspective on internalization. The Journal of Experimental Education, 86(1), 30–49.Google Scholar
  80. Vansteenkiste, M., Soenens, B., Van Petegem, S., & Duriez, B. (2014). Longitudinal associations between adolescent perceived degree and style of parental prohibition and internalization and defiance. Developmental Psychology, 50(1), 229–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Vansteenkiste, M., & Ryan, R. M. (2013). On psychological growth and vulnerability: Basic psychological need satisfaction and need frustration as a unifying principle. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 23, 263–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Vasquez, A. C., Patall, E. A., Fong, C. J., Corrigan, A. S., & Pine, L. (2016). Parent autonomy-support, academic achievement, and psychosocial functioning: a meta-analysis of research. Educational Psychology Review, 28(3), 605–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Villarreal, D., & Nelson, J. (2018). Parental monitoring and adolescent risk behaviors: the moderating role of adolescent internalizing symptoms and gender. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 27(11), 3627–3637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Watson, D., Clark, A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063–1070.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Yap, M., Pilkington, P., Ryan, S.M., & Jorns, A. (2014). Parental factors associated with depression and anxiety in young people: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 156, 8–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Rodríguez-Meirinhos
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maarten Vansteenkiste
    • 3
  • Bart Soenens
    • 3
  • Alfredo Oliva
    • 1
  • Katrijn Brenning
    • 3
  • Lucía Antolín-Suárez
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Developmental and Educational PsychologyUniversidad de SevillaSevilleSpain
  2. 2.Department of Communication and EducationUniversidad Loyola AndalucíaSevilleSpain
  3. 3.Department of Developmental, Personality, and Social PsychologyGhent UniversityGhentBelgium

Personalised recommendations