Talking Together, Thinking Alone: Relations among Co-Rumination, Peer Relationships, and Rumination
- 317 Downloads
Girls are more likely to engage in rumination, associated with the development of mental health problems, as well as report higher levels of friendship quality, hypothesized to protect against these disorders. The current study examined whether co-rumination may drive simultaneous increases in rumination and changes in friendship quality among adolescents. The project included 360 participants (43% boys), ages 9.8 to 15.8 years, and analyses revealed that co-rumination mediated the link between female sex and both rumination and negative friendship quality. There was also a bidirectional relation between co-rumination and positive friendship quality. These findings highlight several pathways by which co-rumination mediates the relation between sex and both maladaptive (i.e. rumination, negative friendship quality) and adaptive (i.e. positive friendship quality) outcomes.
KeywordsCo-rumination Rumination Friendship quality Peers
This research was supported by a gift from Patricia and Rodes Hart, by support from the Warren Family Foundation, and by NICHD grant (1R01HD059891) to David A. Cole. Julia W. Felton was supported by an NRSA grant from the National Institute of Mental Health (MH079670) during the completion of this work.
J.F. conceived of the study with D.C., oversaw the data collection, analyzed the data and contributed to writing the manuscript; D.C. co-conceived the study, participated in the design of the study, created the data analytic plan, and provided feedback on all drafts of the manuscript; M.H., G.K., and V.B. contributed to drafting the manuscript. All authors have read and accepted the final manuscript.
This study was funded by a gift from the Patricia and Rodes Hart Foundation, the Warren Family Foundation, and the NICHD (1R01HD059891) to David A. Cole. The study was also funded by a grant from the National Institute of Mental Health (MH079670) awarded to Julia Felton.
Data Sharing and Declaration
The study’s data will not be deposited.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The study was conducted in compliance with all procedures approved by the Vanderbilt University Institutional Review Board. All protocols were consistent with national and international ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all study participants.
- Abela, J. R. Z., Rochon, A., & Vanderbilt, E. (2000). The Children’s Response Styles Questionnaire (Unpublished questionnaire). Montreal, Canada: McGill University.Google Scholar
- Bastin, M., Mezulis, A. H., Ahles, J., Raes, F., & Bijttebier, P. (2015). Moderating effects of brooding and co-rumination on the relationship between stress and depressive symptoms in early adolescence: A multi-wave study. Journal Of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(4), 607–618. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-014-9912-7.Google Scholar
- Bastin, M., Vanhalst, J., Raes, F., & Bijttebier, P. (2018). Co-brooding and co-reflection as differential predictors of depressive symptoms and friendship quality in adolescents: Investigating the moderating role of gender. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47(5), 1037–1051. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-017-0746-9.Google Scholar
- Bodell, L. P., Wildes, J. E., Cheng, Y., Goldschmidt, A. B., Keenan, K., Hipwell, A. E., & Stepp, S. D. (2018). Associations between race and eating disorder symptom trajectories in black and white girls. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 46(3), 625–638. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-017-0322-5.Google Scholar
- Broderick, P., & Korteland, C. (2002). Coping style and depression in early adolescence: Relationships to gender, gender role, and implicit beliefs. Sex Roles, 46, 201–213Google Scholar
- Calmes, C. A., & Roberts, J. E. (2008). Rumination in interpersonal relationships: Does Co-rumination explain gender differences in emotional distress and relationship satisfaction among college students? Cognitive Therapy And Research, 32(4), 577–590. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-008-9200-3.Google Scholar
- Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (1979). Quasi-Experimentation: Design and Analysis Issues for Field Settings. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
- Dishion, T. J., & Tipsord, J. M. (2011). Peer contagion in child and adolescent social and emotional development. Annual Review Of Psychology, 62189-214. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.093008.100412
- Giletta, M., Scholte, R. J., Burk, W. J., Engels, R. E., Larsen, J. K., Prinstein, M. J., & Ciairano, S. (2011). Similarity in depressive symptoms in adolescents’ friendship dyads: Selection or socialization? Developmental Psychology, 47(6), 1804–1814. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023872.Google Scholar
- Hankin, B. L., Stone, L., & Wright, P. A. (2010). Corumination, interpersonal stress generation, and internalizing symptoms: Accumulating effects and transactional influences in a multiwave study of adolescents. Development And Psychopathology, 22(1), 217–235. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579409990368.Google Scholar
- Hill, J. P., & Lynch, M. C. (1983). The intensification of gender-related role expectations during early adolescence. In J. Brooks-Gunn & A. C. Petersen (Eds.), Girls at puberty: Biological and psychosocial perspectives (pp. 210–228). New York, NY: Plenum.Google Scholar
- Little, R. J., & Rubin, D. B. (1987). Statistical analysis with missing data. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
- MacKinnon, D. P., Fairchild, A. J., & Fritz, M. S. (2007). Mediation analysis. Annual Review of Psycholology, 58, 593–614.Google Scholar
- Marsh, H. W. (1993). Stability of Individual Differences in Multiwave Panel Studies: Comparison of Simplex Models and One-Factor Models. Journal of Educational Measurement, 30, 157–183. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-3984.1993.tb01072.x.Google Scholar
- Martin, N. C., Felton, J. W., & Cole, D. A. (2016). Predictors of youths’ posttraumatic stress symptoms following a natural disaster: The 2010 Nashville, Tennessee, flood. Journal Of Clinical Child And Adolescent Psychology, 45(3), 335–347. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2014.982279.Google Scholar
- Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (2010). MPLUS user’s guide. 6th ed Los Angeles, CA: Muthen & Muthen.Google Scholar
- Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2012). Emotion regulation and psychopathology: The role of gender. Annual Review Of Clinical Psychology, 861-87. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032511-143109
- Parker, J. G., Rubin, K. H., Erath, S. A., Wojslawowicz, J. C., & Buskirk, A. A. (2006). Peer relationships, child development, and adjustment: A developmental psychopathology perspective. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 1. Theory and method. 2nd ed. (pp. 419–493). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879–891. https://doi-org.proxyum.researchport.umd.edu/10.3758/BRM.40.3.879.Google Scholar
- Rose, A. J., & Rudolph, K. D. (2006). A review of sex differences in peer relationship processes: Potential trade-offs for the emotional and behavioral development of girls and boys. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 98–131.Google Scholar
- Schwartz-Mette R. A., & Rose A. J. (2012). Co-rumination mediates contagion of internalizing symptoms within youths’ friendships. Developmental Psychology, 48(5), 1355–1365. https://doi-org.proxyum.researchport.umd.edu/10.1037/a0027484.Google Scholar
- Steiger, J. H. (1990). Structural model evaluation and modification: an interval estimation approach. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25, 173–180.Google Scholar
- Stone, L. B., & Gibb, B. E. (2015). Brief report: Preliminary evidence that co-rumination fosters adolescents’ depression risk by increasing rumination. Journal Of Adolescence, 38 1-4. 10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.10.0Google Scholar
- Updegraff, K. A., Helms, H. M., McHale, S. M., Crouter, A. C., Thayer, S. M., & Sales, L. H. (2004). Who’s the Boss? Patterns of Perceived Control in Adolescents’ Friendships. Journal Of Youth And Adolescence, 33(5), 403–420. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOYO.0000037633.39422.b0.Google Scholar