Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 47, Issue 9, pp 1966–1977 | Cite as

Development of Friendship and Task Values in a New School: Friend Selection for the Arts and Physical Education but Socialization for Academic Subjects

  • Angela ChowEmail author
  • Noona Kiuru
  • Philip D. Parker
  • Jacquelynne S. Eccles
  • Katariina Salmela-Aro
Empirical Research


Friends provide important social contexts for student development. Research has shown that adolescent friends are similar to each other in their interest and values for different school subjects. Yet our current understanding does not extend to knowing whether selection, deselection, or socialization processes are responsible for this phenomena. Without this knowledge, it is very difficult for parents, teachers, and schools to know how and when to intervene. This study investigated selection, deselection, and socialization effects on adolescent students’ task values for academic (languages, math and science, and social sciences) and non-academic subject areas (the arts and physical education). A social network approach was used to examine two waves of annual data collected from school-based networks of adolescents in the first and second years of high school education in Finland (N = 1419; female = 48.6%; mean age at first measurement point = 16). The results revealed that adolescents tended to select friends with similar levels of task values (friend selection) for the arts and physical education, but friends did not become more similar in these areas over time (friend socialization). In contrast, there was evidence of friend socialization, but not friend selection, for the academic school subjects. Across all subjects, differences in task values did not predict friendship dissolution (friend deselection). These findings suggest that to a significant extent, students make agentic choices in developing friendship with schoolmates based on their task values in non-academic subjects. The resultant friend contexts that individuals created, in turn, affected their task values in academic subject areas. These results shed light on the complexity of friend effect mechanisms on task values at the subject domain-specific level.


Task values Selection Deselection Socialization Social network analysis 


Authors’ Contributions

A.C. conceived of the study, participated in the theoretical design, methodological design, coordination, and drafted the manuscript. N.K. participated in the methodological design and interpretation of the data, performed the statistical analysis, and drafted part of the manuscript. P.D.P. participated in the interpretation of the data and manuscript review. J.S.E. participated in the interpretation of the data and manuscript review. K.S.A. conceived the FinEdu Studies and participated in manuscript review. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


This study was funded by Academy of Finland (308351, 273872).

Data Sharing and Declaration

This manuscript’s data will not be deposited.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

The study protocol was approved by the University of Helsinki Ethical Review Board in the Humanities and Social and Behavioral Sciences.

Informed Consent

Participation was voluntary, and informed consent forms were collected from both the students and their parents.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied Health Science, School of Public Health-BloomingtonIndiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of JyväskyläJyväskyläFinland
  3. 3.Institute for Positive Psychology & EducationAustralian Catholic UniversityStrathfieldAustralia
  4. 4.School of EducationUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  5. 5.Department of Education, Faculty of Educational SciencesUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

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