Development of Friendship and Task Values in a New School: Friend Selection for the Arts and Physical Education but Socialization for Academic Subjects
Friends provide important social contexts for student development. Research has shown that adolescent friends are similar to each other in their interest and values for different school subjects. Yet our current understanding does not extend to knowing whether selection, deselection, or socialization processes are responsible for this phenomena. Without this knowledge, it is very difficult for parents, teachers, and schools to know how and when to intervene. This study investigated selection, deselection, and socialization effects on adolescent students’ task values for academic (languages, math and science, and social sciences) and non-academic subject areas (the arts and physical education). A social network approach was used to examine two waves of annual data collected from school-based networks of adolescents in the first and second years of high school education in Finland (N = 1419; female = 48.6%; mean age at first measurement point = 16). The results revealed that adolescents tended to select friends with similar levels of task values (friend selection) for the arts and physical education, but friends did not become more similar in these areas over time (friend socialization). In contrast, there was evidence of friend socialization, but not friend selection, for the academic school subjects. Across all subjects, differences in task values did not predict friendship dissolution (friend deselection). These findings suggest that to a significant extent, students make agentic choices in developing friendship with schoolmates based on their task values in non-academic subjects. The resultant friend contexts that individuals created, in turn, affected their task values in academic subject areas. These results shed light on the complexity of friend effect mechanisms on task values at the subject domain-specific level.
KeywordsTask values Selection Deselection Socialization Social network analysis
A.C. conceived of the study, participated in the theoretical design, methodological design, coordination, and drafted the manuscript. N.K. participated in the methodological design and interpretation of the data, performed the statistical analysis, and drafted part of the manuscript. P.D.P. participated in the interpretation of the data and manuscript review. J.S.E. participated in the interpretation of the data and manuscript review. K.S.A. conceived the FinEdu Studies and participated in manuscript review. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
This study was funded by Academy of Finland (308351, 273872).
Data Sharing and Declaration
This manuscript’s data will not be deposited.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The study protocol was approved by the University of Helsinki Ethical Review Board in the Humanities and Social and Behavioral Sciences.
Participation was voluntary, and informed consent forms were collected from both the students and their parents.
- Berndt, T.J., & Keefe, K. (1995). Friends’ influence on adolescents’ adjustment to school. Child Development, 66, 1312–1329. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1995.tb00937.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Byrne, D. (1971). The attraction paradigm. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Cillessen, A.H.N. (2009). Sociometric methods. In K.H. Rubin, W.M. Bukowski & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 82–99). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Dijkstra, J.K., Berger, C., & Lindenberg, S. (2011). Do physical and relational aggression explain adolescents’ friendship selection? The competing roles of network characteristics, gender, and social status. Aggressive Behavior, 37(5), 417–429. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.20402.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Duineveld, J., Parker, P.D., Ryan, R., Ciarrochi, J., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2017). The link between perceived maternal and paternal autonomy support and adolescent well-being across three major educational transitions. Developmental Psychology, 53, 1978–1994. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000364.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Eccles, J.S. (1983). Expectancies, values, and academic behaviours. In J.T. Spence (Ed.), Achievement and achievement motivation (pp. 75–146). San Francisco, CA: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
- Eccles, J.S., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109–132. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135153.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Franken, A., Keijsers, L., Dijkstra, J.K., & Ter Bogt, T. (2017). Music preferences, friendship, and externalizing behavior in early adolescence: a SIENA examination of the Music Marker Theory using the SNARE Study. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(8), 1839–1850. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-017-0633-4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Giordano, P.C. (2003). Relationships in adolescence. Annual Review of Sociology, 29, 257–281. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.29.010202.100047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gruenenfelder-Steiger, A.E., Harris, M.A., & Fend, H.A. (2016). Subjective and objective peer approval evaluations and self-esteem development: A test of reciprocal, prospective, and long-term effects. Developmental Psychology, 52(10), 1563–1577. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000147.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Holopainen, L., & Savolainen, H. (2005). Erityisopetus ja oppimisvaikeudet. In E. Korkeakoski (Ed.), Koulutuksen perusturva ja oppimisen tuki perusopetuksessa. Osaraportti, (Vol 3, pp. 58–72). Jyväskylä, Finland: Koulutuksen arviointineuvosto..Google Scholar
- Kindermann, T.A. (2016). Peer group influences on students’ academic motivation. In R. Wentzel & G.B. Ramani (Eds.), Handbook of social influence on social-emotional, motivation, and cognitive outcomes in school contexts (pp. 31–47). New York, US: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Kiuru, N., Burk, W., Laursen, B., Salmela-Aro, K., & Nurmi, J.-E. (2010). Pressure to drink but not to smoke: Disentangling selection and socialization in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. Journal of Adolescence, 33, 801–812. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2010.07.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kiuru, N., DeLay, D., Laursen, B., Burk, W.J., Lerkkanen, M.-K., Poikkeus, A.-M., & Nurmi, J.-E. (2017). Peer selection and influence in students’ reading skills in early primary grades: A social network approach. Reading and Writing, 30, 1473–1500. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-017-9733-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lenhart, A., Smith, A., Anderson, M., Duggan, M., & Perrin, A. (2015). Teens, technology and friendships. Retrieved from http://assets.pewresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/14/2015/08/Teens-and-Friendships-FINAL2.pdf
- Lerner, R.M. (2004). Diversity in individual-context relations as the basis for positive development across the life span: A developmental systems perspective for theory, research, and application. Research in Human Development, 1, 327–346. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15427617rhd0104_5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ojanen, T., Sijtsema, J.J., Hawley, P.H., & Little, T.D. (2010). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in early adolescents’ friendship development: Friendship selection, influence, and prospective friendship quality. Journal of Adolescence, 33(6), 837–851. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2010.08.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ripley, R., Snijders, T.A.B., & Preciado, P. (2013). Manual for SIENA version4.0. Oxford: University of Oxford.Google Scholar
- Ruschoff, B., Salmela-Aro, K., Kowalewski, T., Dijkstra, J.K., & Veenstra, R. (2018). Peer networks in the post-graduate transition: Does peer group efficacy matter? (Manuscript submitted for publication).Google Scholar
- Simpkins, S.D., Schaefer, D.R., Price, C.D., & Vest, A.E. (2013). Adolescent friendships, BMI, and physical activity: untangling selection and influence through longitudinal social network analysis. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 23(3), 537–549. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2012.00836.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yli-Piipari, S., Kiuru, N., Jaakkola, T., Liukkonen, J., & Watt, A. (2011). The role of peer groups in male and female adolescents’ task values and physical activity. Psychological Reports, 108(1), 75–93. https://doi.org/10.2466/05.10.11.17.pr0.108.1.75-93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar