Organized Activity Involvement among Urban Youth: Understanding Family- and Neighborhood- Level Characteristics as Predictors of Involvement
- 334 Downloads
Research examining factors that predict youth’s involvement in organized activities is very limited, despite associations with positive outcomes. Using data from 1043 youth (49% female; 46.4% Hispanic, 35.4% African American, 14.0% Caucasian, and 4.2% other) from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, this study examined how characteristics of parents (supervision, warmth) and neighborhoods (perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy) predict patterns of adolescents’ involvement in organized activities concurrently (i.e., intensity) and longitudinally (i.e., type and breadth). Parental supervision predicted adolescents’ participation in organized activities across multiple waves. Neighborhood violence was positively associated with concurrent participation in organized activities after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES), whereas higher neighborhood collective efficacy predicted greater breadth in organized activity participation across time. These findings have important implications regarding how to attract and sustain organized activity participation for low-income, urban youth.
KeywordsOrganized activities Parental warmth Supervision Neighborhood collective efficacy Neighborhood violence
We would like to acknowledge the primary funders of the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods: the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and the National Institute of Justice. We would also like to acknowledge the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data for providing access to the data.
N.A.A. conceived of the study, participated in the design of the study, statistical analyses and data interpretation, and drafted the manuscript. A.B. participated in the design of the study, data interpretation, and helped to draft the manuscript. A.G. participated in the literature review for the study and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
There is no funding to report.
Data Sharing Declaration
The data that support the findings of this study are available from the National Archive of Criminal Justice, but restrictions apply to the availability of these data, which were used under license for the current study, and so are not publicly available. However, data are available from the authors upon reasonable request and with permission of the National Archive of Criminal Justice.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
For this type of study formal consent is not required.
- Anderson, J. C., Funk, J. B., Elliott, R., & Smith, P. H. (2003). Parental support and pressure and children’s extracurricular activities: Relationships with amount of involvement and affective experience of participation. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 24, 241–257. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0193-3973(03)00046-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Caldwell, B., & Bradley, R. (1984). Home observation for measurement of the environment. Little Rock: University of Arkansas.Google Scholar
- Carver, P .R., & Iruka, I. U. (2006). National household education surveys program of 2005 after-school programs and activities: 2005. ED TAB. NCES 2006-076. National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
- Dawes, N. P., Modecki, K. L., Gonzales, N., Dumka, L., & Millsap, R. (2015). Mexican-origin youth participation in extracurricular activities: Predicting trajectories of involvement from 7th to 12th grade. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44, 2172–2188. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-015-0284-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dearing, E., Wimer, C., Simpkins, S. D., Lund, T., Bouffard, S. M., Caronongan, P., & Weiss, H. (2009). Do neighborhood and home contexts help explain why low-income children miss opportunities to participate in activities outside of school? Developmental Psychology, 45, 1545–1562. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017359.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dynarski, M., Moore, M., James-Burdumy, S., Rosenberg, L., Deke, J., & Mansfield, W. (2004). When schools stay open late: The National Evaluation of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers Program. New Findings. Executive Summary. US Department of Education.Google Scholar
- Eccles, J., Adler, T. F., Futterman, R., Goff, S. B., Kaczala, C. M., Meece, J., & Midgley, C. (1983). Expectancies, values, and academic behaviors. In Spence, J. T. (ed.), Achievement and Achievement Motives, W.H. Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
- Eisman, A. B., Stoddard, S. A., Bauermeister, J. A., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2016). Trajectories of organized activity participation among urban adolescents: An analysis of predisposing factors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45, 225–238. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-015-0267-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Enders, C. K. (2010). Applied missing data analysis. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Faraway, J. J. (2006). Extending the linear model with R: Generalized linear, mixed effects and nonparametric regression models. Boca Raton, FL: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
- Fauth, R. C., Roth, J. L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2007). Does the neighborhood context alter the link between youth’s after-school time activities and developmental outcomes? A multilevel analysis. Developmental Psychology, 43, 760–777. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16188.8.131.520.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Furstenberg, F., Cook, T., Eccles, J., Elder, G., & Sameroff, A. (1999). Managing to make it: Urban families in adolescent success. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Jacobs, J. E., & Eccles, J. S. (2000). Parents, task values, and real-life achievement-related choices. In C. Sansone & J. M. Harackiewics (Eds.), Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: The search for optimal motivation and performance (pp. 405–439). San Diego, CA: Academic Press, Inc.Google Scholar
- Jacobs, J. E., Vernon, M. K., & Eccles, J. (2005). Activity choices in middle childhood: The roles of gender, self-beliefs, and parents’ influence. In J. L. Mahoney, R. W. Larson & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after-school and community programs (pp. 235–254). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Jarrett, R. L. (1999). Successful parenting in high-risk neighborhoods. The Future of Children. https://doi.org/10.2307/1602704
- Kerr, M., Stattin, H., Biesecker, G., & Ferrer‐Wreder, L. (2003). Relationships with parents and peers in adolescence. In I. B. Weiner (Ed.), Handbook of psychology (pp. 395–419). https://doi.org/10.1002/0471264385.wei0616.
- Laughlin, L. (2014). A child’s day: Living arrangements, nativity, and family transitions: 2011 (Selected indicators of child well being). (Research Report No. P70-139). U.S. Census Bureau website: https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2014/demo/p70-139.pdf.
- Mahoney, J. L., Larson, R., Eccles, J. S., & Lord, H. (2005). Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after-school, and community programs. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Mahoney, J. L., Vandell, D. L., Simpkins, S., & Zarrett, N. (2009). Adolescent out‐of‐school activities. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 1–42). https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470479193.adlpsy002008.
- Marsh, H., & Kleitman, S. (2002). Extracurricular school activities: The good, the bad, and the nonlinear. Harvard Educational Review, 72, 464–515. https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.72.4.051388703v7v7736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Martin, K. R., & Schoua-Glusberg, A. (2002). Project on human development in Chicago neighborhoods longitudinal cohort study: Field data collection report. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.Google Scholar
- National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2002). Community programs to promote youth development. Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth. In J. Eccles, J. A. Gootman (Eds.), Board on children, youth, and families, division of behavioral and social sciences and education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
- Pedersen, S., & Seidman, E. (2005). Contexts and correlates of out-of-school activity participation among low-income urban adolescents. In J. L. Mahoney, R. W. Larson & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after-school and community programs (pp. 85–109). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Piha, S. (2010, December 14). Serving the needs of Latino youth [Web log post]. http://blog.learninginafterschool.org/2010/12/serving-needs-of-latino-youth.html.
- Simons, R. L., Simons, L. G., Burt, C. H., Brody, G. H., & Cutrona, C. (2005). Collective efficacy, authoritative parenting and delinquency: A longitudinal test of a model integrating community- and family-level processes. Criminology, 43(4), 989–1029. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2005.00031.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Simpkins, S. D., Delgado, M. Y., Price, C. D., Quach, A., & Starbuck, E. (2013). Socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration: Examining the potential mechanisms underlying Mexican-origin adolescents’ organized activity participation. Developmental Psychology, 49, 706–721. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028399.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vandell, D. L., Larson, R. W., Mahoney, J. L., & Watts, T. W. (2015). Children’s organized activities. In R. M. Lerner (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science (pp. 1–40). https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118963418.childpsy408
- Wimer, C., Bouffard, S., Caronongan, P., Daring, E., Simpkins, S. D., Little, P.M.D., Simpkins-Chaput, S. et al. (2006). What are kids getting into these days? Demographic differences in youth out-of-school time participation. Harvard Family Research Project. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.Google Scholar