Does One Size Fit All? Ethnic Differences in Parenting Behaviors and Motivations for Adolescent Engagement in Cyberbullying
- 1.8k Downloads
Cyberbullying has become a growing concern for adolescents. This study examined differences in cyber-aggression for 518 Canadian adolescents of either East Asian or European descent (61 % female; M age = 15.24; SD = 1.68). Associations between parenting behaviors (parental control, parental solicitation, and child disclosure) and engagement in cyber-aggression, as well as motivations for engaging in cyber-aggression were explored. Adolescents completed self-report questionnaires about their engagement in cyberbullying, perceptions of their parents’ behaviors about their online activities, their motivations for cyberbullying (reactive vs. proactive), as well as several other relevant psychosocial and demographic variables (e.g., sex, age, Canadian born, mother’s education level, using a computer in a private place, and average amount of time spent online). Regression analyses showed that East Asian adolescents were less likely to engage in cyberbullying. In addition, higher levels of parental control and lower levels of parental solicitation were linked more closely with lowered reported levels of cyber-aggression for East Asian adolescents relative to their peers of European descent. In addition, East Asian adolescents were more likely to be motivated to engage in cyber-aggression for proactive reasons than reactive reasons, with the opposite found for adolescents of European descent. A significant 3-way interaction suggested that this pattern was more pronounced for East Asian males relative to East Asian females. Findings are discussed in terms of cultural differences based on the doctrines of Confucianism and Taoism.
KeywordsCyberbullying Cyber-aggression East Asian Parenting behaviors Reactive aggression Proactive aggression
- Berab, T., & Li, Q. (2007). The relationship between cyberbullying and school bullying. Journal of Student Wellbeing, 1, 15–33.Google Scholar
- Brown, C. (2011). Maintaining heritage language: Perspectives of Korean parents. Multicultural Education, 19, 31–37.Google Scholar
- Chao, R. K., & Kaeochinda, K. F. (2010). In Russell S. T., Crockett L. J. & Chao R. K.(Eds.), Parental sacrifice and acceptance as distinct dimensions of parental support among chinese and filipino american adolescents. New York: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-5728-3_4.
- Chao, R., & Tseng, V. (2002). Parenting of Asians. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Vol. 4: Social conditions and applied parenting (2nd ed., pp. 59–93). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Dehue, F., Bolman, C., Vollink, T., & Pouwelse, M. (2012). Cyberbullying and traditional bullying in relation to adolescents’ perception of parenting. Journal of CyberTherapy and Rehabilitation, 5, 25–34.Google Scholar
- Dooley, J. J., Cross, D., Hearn, L., & Treyvaud, R. (2009a). A review of existing australian and international cyber-safety research. Perth: Child Health Promotion Research Centre, Edith Cowan University,Google Scholar
- Englander, E. K., & Muldowney, A. (2007). Just turn the darn thing off: Understanding cyberbullying. In Proceedings of persistently safe schools: The national conference on safe schools (pp. 83–92), Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Gradinger, P., Strohmeier, D., & Spiel, C. (2010). Definition and measurement of cyberbullying. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 4. Retrieved from http://www.cyberpsychology.eu/view.php?cisloclanku=2010112301.
- Kornadt, H.-J. (2002a). Biology, culture and childrearing: The development of social motives. In H. Keller, Y. H. Poortinga, & A. Schälmerich (Eds.), Between biology and culture: Perspectives on ontogenetic development (pp. 191–211). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kornadt, H. (2002b). Social motives and their development in cultural context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, Unit 5. Retrieved from Kornadt, H. J., & Tachibana, Y. (1999). Early child-rearing and social motives after nine years: A cross-cultural longitudinal study. In W. J. Lonner, D. L. Dinnel, D. K. Forgays, & S. A. Hayes (Eds.), Merging past, present, and future in cross-cultural psychology: Selected papers from the fourteenth international congress of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology (pp. 429–441). Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
- Lenhart, A. (2012). Teens, smartphones & texting. Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/~/media//Files/Reports/2012/PIP_Teens_Smartphones_and_Texting.pdf.
- Lenhart, A., Purcell, K., Smith, A., & Zickuhr, K. (2010). Social media & mobile internet use among teens and young adults. Pew Internet and American Life Project. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/~/media//Files/Reports/2010/PIP_Social_Media_and_Young_Adults_Report_Final_with_toplines.pdf.
- Livingstone, S. (2002). Challenges and dilemmas as children go online: Linking observational research in families to the emerging policy agenda. LSE Research Online. Retrieved from http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/21755/.
- Perzow, S. E. D., Petrenko, C. L. M., Garrido, E. F., Combs, M. D., Culhane, S. E., & Taussig, H. N. (2012). Dissociative symptoms and academic functioning in maltreated children: A preliminary study. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation. doi:10.1080/15299732.2012.7369.
- Shapka, J. D. (2011). Internet socializing online: What are the risks?. Perth, Australia: Curtin University of Technology.Google Scholar
- Shapka, J. D., Khan, S., Collie, R. J., & Schonert-Reichl, K. A. (2010, March). Prevalence and patterns of internet use: The case for younger adolescents. In Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research on Adolescents, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
- Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Luyckx, K., & Goossens, L. (2006). Parenting and adolescent problem behavior: An integrated model with adolescent self-disclosure and perceived parental knowledge as intervening variables. Developmental Psychology, 42, 305–318. doi:10.1037/0012-1622.214.171.1245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Statistics Canada. (2007). Immigrants in Canada: A portrait of the foreign-born population. Statistics Canada. Catalogue no. 97-557-XIE.Google Scholar
- Sun, P., Unger, J. B., Palmer, P. H., Gallaher, P., Chou, C., & Baezconde-Garbanati, L. (2005). Internet accessibility and usage among urban adolescents in southern california: Implications for web-based health research. Cyberpsychology & Behavior: The Impact of the Internet, Multimedia and Virtual Reality on Behavior and Society, 8, 441–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tsang, T. W., Kohn, M. R., & Chow, C. M. (2013). Self-perception and attitude toward physical activity in overweight/obese adolescents: The “martial fitness” study. Research in Sports Medicine: An International Journal, 21, 37–51.Google Scholar