Enhancing technology transfer through entrepreneurial development: practices from innovation spaces

  • Sean KrugerEmail author
  • Adriana Aletta Steyn


As the research on technology transfer and innovation continues to develop, there is still a need to determine which mechanisms can be used to develop entrepreneurial capabilities to enhance technology transfer. This study aims to show how mechanisms such as innovation spaces can be used to support entrepreneurs by enhancing their ability to seize opportunities of high value. This can be attributed to the development of new-generation technologies stemming from the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR). Thus, the objective of this study is to demonstrate innovation spaces’ role within knowledge-rich research environments such as universities, and how they enhance entrepreneurial abilities to create ventures of high value. To enhance the understanding of this concept, the important role of technologies, especially those attributable to 4IR to create entrepreneurial ventures of high value were reviewed. This was done through the lens of entrepreneurs who originate from academic environments within the context of South African universities. In order to achieve this, a theoretical overview of innovation, entrepreneurship, technology transfer and 4IR was developed. This study followed a case study methodology which allowed for an analysis of bounded entities, which—in this research—involved universities in South Africa and the innovation spaces they utilise to support entrepreneurs. The results indicated various themes and common practices across entities in South Africa, which create an ecosystem that aims to enhance technology transfer within the region by leveraging innovation spaces. This means that innovation spaces offer an early access point to technological innovation, which can emanate from academic research to accelerate the development of entrepreneurial ventures through an array of support resources and services. As such the findings show that technology transfer continues to play a pivotal role in this emerging technological paradigm, where strategies to address disruptions of 4IR require coordinated activities. It is recommended that further research be conducted based on an institutional theory approach to expand the focus of entrepreneurship, where innovation spaces are used as a launchpad in an attempt to improve their success rate.


Emerging economies Entrepreneurship Fourth Industrial Revolution Incubators Innovation spaces Makerspace South Africa Technology transfer 

JEL Classification

C21 C88 C99 L24 L26 O14 O19 O31 O32 O33 O43 O36 



  1. Adams, S., Brown, M., Dahlstrom, E., Davis, A., DePaul, K., Diaz, V., & Pomerantz, J. (2018). Horizon report: 2018 higher education edition. ISBN 978-0-9906415-8-2.Google Scholar
  2. Adeniran, T. V., & Johnston, K. A. (2016). The impacts of ICT utilisation and dynamic capabilities on the competitive South African SMEs. International Journal of Information Technology and Management,15(1), 59–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arafeh, L. (2016). An entrepreneurial key competencies’ model. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship,5(1), 26. Scholar
  4. Audretsch, D. B., & Caiazza, R. (2016). Technology transfer and entrepreneurship: Cross-national analysis. Journal of Technology Transfer,41(6), 1247–1259. Scholar
  5. Autor, D. H. (2015). Why are there still so many jobs? The history and future of workplace automation. Journal of Economic Perspectives,29(3), 3–30. Scholar
  6. Barbero, J. L., Casillas, J. C., Ramos, A., & Guitar, S. (2012). Revisiting incubation performance. How incubator typology affects results. Technological Forecasting and Social Change,79(5), 888–902. Scholar
  7. Berbegal-Mirabent, J., Lafuente, E., & Solé, F. (2013). The pursuit of knowledge transfer activities: An efficiency analysis of Spanish universities. Journal of Business Research,66(10), 2051–2059. Scholar
  8. Berger, R. (2015). The digital transformation of industry: How important is it? Who are the winners? What must be done now? Research Gate. Retrieved October 28, 2018 from
  9. Berger, T., & Frey, C. B. (2016). Did the computer revolution shift the fortunes of US cities? Technology shocks and the geography of new jobs. Regional Science and Urban Economics,57, 38–45. Scholar
  10. Borge, L., & Bröring, S. (2017). Exploring effectiveness of technology transfer in interdisciplinary settings: The case of the bioeconomy. Creativity and Innovation Management,26(3), 311–322. Scholar
  11. Bruneel, J., Ratinho, T., Clarysse, B., & Groen, A. (2012). The evolution of business incubators: Comparing demand and supply of business incubation services across different incubator generations. Technovation,32(2), 110–121. Scholar
  12. Budyldina, N. (2018). Entrepreneurial universities and regional contribution. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal,14(2), 265–277. Scholar
  13. Campbell, D. F. J., & Carayannis, E. G. (2016). The academic firm: A new design and redesign proposition for entrepreneurship in innovation-driven knowledge economy. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship,5(1), 12. Scholar
  14. Carayannis, E., Hens, L., & Nicolopoulou-Stamati, P. (2017). Transdisciplinarity and growth: Nature and characteristics of transdisciplinary training programs on the human–environment interphase. Journal of the Knowledge Economy,8(1), 1–2. Scholar
  15. Carayannis, E. G., Popescu, D., Sipp, C., & Stewart, M. (2006). Technological learning for entrepreneurial development (TL4ED) in the knowledge economy (KE): Case studies and lessons learned. Technovation,26(4), 419–443. Scholar
  16. Carolis, A., De Macchi, M., Negri, E., & Terzi, S. (2017). Advances in production management systems. The path to intelligent, collaborative and sustainable manufacturing (Vol. 514, pp. 13–20). Berlin: Springer. Scholar
  17. Cassiman, B., Veugelers, R., & Zuniga, P. (2008). In search of performance effects of (in)direct industry science links. Industrial and Corporate Change,17(4), 611–646. Scholar
  18. Cockburn, I. M., Henderson, R., & Stern, S. (2018). The impact of artificial intelligence on innovation. Retrieved May 21, 2018 from
  19. Colegrove, P. (2017). Makerspaces in libraries: Technology as catalyst for better learning, better teaching. Ingeniería Solidaria,13(21), 19. Scholar
  20. Corrente, S., Greco, S., Nicotra, M., Romano, M., & Schillaci, C. E. (2019). Evaluating and comparing entrepreneurial ecosystems using SMAA and SMAA-S. Journal of Technology Transfer. Scholar
  21. Cunningham, J. A., Audretsch, D., Kuratko, D. F., Lehmann, E. E., & Menter, M. (2019a). Entrepreneurial ecosystems: Economic, technological, and societal impacts. Journal of Technology Transfer,44(2), 313–325. Scholar
  22. Cunningham, J. A., Lehmann, E. E., Menter, M., & Seitz, N. (2019b). The impact of university focused technology transfer policies on regional innovation and entrepreneurship. The Journal of Technology Transfer. Scholar
  23. Department of Science and Technology (DST). (2019). White paper on science, technology and innovation as government policy. Pretoria: DST.Google Scholar
  24. Dijkman, R. M., Sprenkels, B., Peeters, T., & Janssen, A. (2015). Business models for the Internet of Things. International Journal of Information Management,35(6), 672–678. Scholar
  25. Erol, S., Schumacher, A., & Sihn, W. (2016). Strategic guidance towards Industry 4.0—A three-stage process model. In International conference on competitive manufacturing 2016. Stellenbosch: Research Gate. Retrieved January 6, 2019 from
  26. Esselaar, S., Stork, C., Ndiwalana, A., & Deen-Swarray, M. (2006). ICT usage and its impact on profitibility of SMEs in 13 African countries. In Information and communication technologies and development. Berkeley, CA: IEEE. Retrieved November 30, 2018 from
  27. Etzkowitz, H. (2003). Innovation in innovation: The triple helix of innovation in innovation. Social Science Information,4242(3), 293–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Evers, N., Cunningham, J. A., & Hoholm, T. (2016). International entrepreneurship in universities: Context, emergence and actors. Journal of International Entrepreneurship,14(3), 285–295. Scholar
  29. Fathian, M., Akhavan, P., & Hoorali, M. (2008). E-readiness assessment of non-profit ICT SMEs in a developing country: The case of Iran. Technovation,28(9), 578–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Feki, C., & Mnif, S. (2016). Entrepreneurship, technological innovation, and economic growth: Empirical analysis of panel data. Journal of the Knowledge Economy,7(4), 984–999. Scholar
  31. Ferreira, J. J. M., Fernandes, C. I., Raposo, M. L., Thurik, R., & Faria, J. R. (2016). Entrepreneur location decisions across industries. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal,12(4), 985–1006. Scholar
  32. Fleacă, E., Fleacă, B., & Maiduc, S. (2018). Aligning strategy with sustainable development goals (SDGs): Process scoping diagram for entrepreneurial higher education institutions (HEIs). Sustainability (Switzerland),10(4), 1–18. Scholar
  33. Fleeson, W., Jayawickreme, E., Jones, A. B. A. P., Brown, N. A., Serfass, D. G., Sherman, R. A., et al. (2017). The Fourth Industrial Revolution and knowledge management: Early stage conceptualisation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,1(1), 1188–1197. Scholar
  34. Florén, H., Frishammar, J., Parida, V., & Wincent, J. (2017). Critical success factors in early new product development: A review and a conceptual model. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal. Scholar
  35. Gandhi, S. J., Wilson, M. D., Hecht, D., Hofbauer, G., Hope, T., Marimuthu, R., & Olufowoshe, A. (2014). Innovation and entrepreneurship in global markets—An initial identification of the divide that can exist between countries. In 2014 international annual conference of the American society for engineering management—Entrepreneurship engineering: Harnessing innovation. Retrieved December 4, 2018 from
  36. Gassmann, O., Enkel, E., & Chesbrough, H. (2010). The future of open innovation. R&D Management,40(3), 213–221. Scholar
  37. Gilsing, V., Bekkers, R., Bodas Freitas, I. M., & Van Der Steen, M. (2011). Differences in technology transfer between science-based and development-based industries: Transfer mechanisms and barriers. Technovation,31(12), 638–647. Scholar
  38. Gono, S., Harindranath, G., & Berna Ozcan, G. (2016). The adoption and impact of ICT in South African SMEs. Strategic Change,25, 717–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Guarino, J., Tennyson, S., McCain, G., Bond, L., Shea, K., & King, H. (2007). Rapid prototyping technology for surgeries of the pediatric spine and pelvis: Benefits analysis. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics,27(8), 955–960. Scholar
  40. Guerrero, M., Urbano, D., & Herrera, F. (2019). Innovation practices in emerging economies: Do university partnerships matter? Journal of Technology Transfer,44(2), 615–646. Scholar
  41. Gumede, V. (2016). Towards a better socio-economic development approach for Africa’s renewal. Africa Institute of South Africa: Africa Insight,46(1), 89–105.Google Scholar
  42. Harrison, R., & Leitch, C. (2009). Voodoo institution or entrepreneurial university? Spin-off companies, the entrepreneurial system and regional development in the UK. Regional Studies,44(9), 1241–1262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hayton, J. C., & Kelly, D. (2006). A competency-based framework for promoting corporate entrepreneurship. Human Resource Management,45(3), 407–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Heinis, T. B., Hilario, J., & Meboldt, M. (2018). Empirical study on innovation motivators and inhibitors of Internet of Things applications for industrial manufacturing enterprises. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship. Scholar
  45. Hermann, M., Pentek, T., & Otto, B. (2015). Design principles for Industrie 4.0 scenarios: A literature review. Business Engineering Institute,1, 16. Scholar
  46. Hess, S., & Siegwart, R. Y. (2013). University technology incubator: Technology transfer of early stage technologies in cross-border collaboration with industry. Business and Management Research,2(2), 15. Scholar
  47. Hsieh, T. Y., Dedhia, R., Cervenka, B., & Tollefson, T. T. (2017). 3D printing: Current use in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery. Current Opinion in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery,25(4), 291–299. Scholar
  48. Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC). (2019). Innovation for inclusive development (IID) policy seminars and the government cluster policy workshops (GCPWs) series 2016-17. [Data set]. IID-GCPW 2016-17. Version 1.0. Pretoria: HSRC.Google Scholar
  49. Innovus. (2019). Biofiltration system. Innovation Bridge. Retrieved May 20, 2019 from
  50. Jung, H., & Kim, B. K. (2018). Determinant factors of university spin-off: The case of Korea. Journal of Technology Transfer,43(6), 1631–1646. Scholar
  51. Kapurubandara, M., & Lawson, R. (2007). SMEs in developing countries need support to address the challenges of adopting e-commerce technologies. In 20th BLED econference emergence and emerging technologies, processes and institutions, Slovenia (pp. 485–498).Google Scholar
  52. Kitchin, R. (2014). The data revolution: Big Data, open data, data infrastructures and their consequences. London: Sage. Scholar
  53. Kolympiris, C., & Klein, P. G. (2017). The effects of academic incubators on university innovation. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal,11(2), 145–170. Scholar
  54. Kumar, J., Pandey, P. M., Ian, D., Jyothish Kumar, L., Pandey, P. M., & Wimpenny, D. I. (2019). 3D printing and additive manufacturing technologies. Berlin: Springer. Scholar
  55. Kunene, M. (2017). Teaching and learning practices for entrepreneurship in higher education: The case of UKZN, March 2017 (pp. 16–17).Google Scholar
  56. Lackéus, M., & Middleton, K. W. (2015). Venture creation programs: Bridging entrepreneurship education and technology transfer. Education and Training,57(1), 48–73. Scholar
  57. Lafuente, E., & Berbegal-Mirabent, J. (2017). Assessing the productivity of technology transfer offices: An analysis of the relevance of aspiration performance and portfolio complexity. Journal of Technology Transfer,44(3), 1–24. Scholar
  58. Landström, H., Åström, F., & Harirchi, G. (2015). Innovation and entrepreneurship studies: One or two fields of research? International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal,11(3), 493–509. Scholar
  59. Langdon, M., Moses, M., & Po Chi, W. (2014). Agile innovation: The revolutionary approach to accelerate success, inspire engagement, and ignite creativity. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  60. Lasi, H., Fettke, P., Kemper, H. G., Feld, T., & Hoffmann, M. (2014). Industry 4.0. Business and Information Systems Engineering,6(4), 239–242. Scholar
  61. Lawal, F. A., Iyiola, O. O., Adegbuyi, O. A., Ogunnaike, O. O., & Taiwo, A. A. (2018). Modelling the relationship between entrepreneurial climate and venture performance: The moderating role of entrepreneurial competencies. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal,24(1), 1–16.Google Scholar
  62. Lee, S. J. (2018). Academic entrepreneurship: Exploring the effects of academic patenting activity on publication and collaboration among heterogeneous researchers in South Korea. Journal of Technology Transfer. Scholar
  63. Lee, M., Yun, J., Pyka, A., Won, D., Kodama, F., Schiuma, G., et al. (2018). How to respond to the Fourth Industrial Revolution, or the Second Information Technology Revolution? Dynamic new combinations between technology, market, and society through open innovation. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity,4(3), 21. Scholar
  64. Leitão, J., Alves, H., Krueger, N., & Park, J. (2017). Entrepreneurial, innovative and sustainable ecosystems best practices and implications for quality of life. Cham: Springer. Scholar
  65. Leitão, P., Colombo, A. W., & Karnouskos, S. (2016). Industrial automation based on cyber-physical systems technologies: Prototype implementations and challenges. Computers in Industry,81, 11–25. Scholar
  66. Link, A., & Audretsch, D. B. (2018). Universities and the entrepreneurial ecosystem by David B. Audretsch and Albert N. Link. Science and Public Policy,45(4), 591–592. Scholar
  67. Link, A., Siegel, D., & Wright, M. (2015). An editors’ introduction. The Chicago handbook of university technology transfer and academic entrepreneurship. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lukeš, M., Longo, M. C., & Zouhar, J. (2018). Do business incubators really enhance entrepreneurial growth? Evidence from a large sample of innovative Italian start-ups. Technovation. Scholar
  69. Magruk, A. (2016). Uncertainty in the sphere of the Industry 4.0—Potential areas to research. Business, Management and Education,14(2), 275–291. Scholar
  70. Malecki, E. J. (2018). Entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial ecosystems. Geography Compass,12(3), 1–21. Scholar
  71. Mamabolo, M. A., Kerrin, M., & Kele, T. (2017). Entrepreneurship management skills requirements in an emerging economy: A South African outlook. The Southern African Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management,9(1), 10. Scholar
  72. Manyika, J., Chui, M., Miremadi, M., Bughin, J., George, K., Willmott, P., et al. (2017). A future that works: Automation, employment, and productivity. New York: Mckinsey Global Institute.Google Scholar
  73. Maree, L., & McKenzie, K. (2014). Exploring the elements of strategic innovation drivers in South Africa. Journal of Economic and Financial Sciences,8(2), 604–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Markman, G. D., Gianiodis, P. T., & Phan, P. H. (2009). Supply-side innovation and technology commercialization. Journal of Management Studies,46(4), 625–649. Scholar
  75. Martínez-Fierro, S., Biedma-Ferrer, J. M., & Ruiz-Navarro, J. (2016). Entrepreneurship and strategies for economic development. Small Business Economics,47(4), 835–851. Scholar
  76. Mazzei, M. J. (2018). Strategic entrepreneurship: Content, process, context, and outcomes. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal. Scholar
  77. Merkofer, P., & Murphy, A. (2009). The e-skills landscape in South Africa: The issues of demand and supply and the use of international benchmarks to inform the South African e-skills development context. Zeitschrift für Politikberatung,2, 685–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Montes, G. C., & Bastos, J. C. A. (2013). Economic policies, macroeconomic environment and entrepreneurs’ expectations: Evidence from Brazil. Journal of Economic Studies,40(3), 334–354. Scholar
  79. Mosey, S., Guerrero, M., & Greenman, A. (2017). Technology entrepreneurship research opportunities: Insights from across Europe. Journal of Technology Transfer,42(1), 1–9. Scholar
  80. Mrkajic, B. (2017). Business incubation models and institutionally void environments. Technovation,68(January), 44–55. Scholar
  81. Mrugalska, B., & Wyrwicka, M. K. (2017). Towards lean production in Industry 4.0. Procedia Engineering,182, 466–473. Scholar
  82. Mueller, E., Chen, X. L., & Riedel, R. (2017). Challenges and requirements for the application of Industry 4.0: A special insight with the usage of cyber-physical system. Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering (English Edition),30(5), 1050–1057. Scholar
  83. Mushonga, M., Arun, T. G., & Marwa, N. W. (2018). Drivers, inhibitors and the future of co-operative financial institutions: A Delphi study on South African perspective. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. Scholar
  84. Ndemo, B., & Weiss, T. (2017). Digital Kenya: An entreprenurial revolution in the making. London: Palgrave Macmillian. Scholar
  85. Nicotra, M., Romano, M., Del Giudice, M., & Schillaci, C. E. (2018). The causal relation between entrepreneurial ecosystem and productive entrepreneurship: A measurement framework. Journal of Technology Transfer,43(3), 640–673. Scholar
  86. Oke, A., Burke, G., & Myers, A. (2007). Innovation types and performance in growing UK SMEs. International Journal of Operations and Production Management,27(7), 735–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Oliver, A. L., Montgomery, K., & Barda, S. (2019). The multi-level process of trust and learning in university–industry innovation collaborations. Journal of Technology Transfer. Scholar
  88. Oussous, A., Benjelloun, F. Z., Ait Lahcen, A., & Belfkih, S. (2018). Big Data technologies: A survey. Journal of King Saud University - Computer and Information Sciences,30(4), 431–448. Scholar
  89. Oztemel, E., & Gursev, S. (2018). Literature review of Industry 4.0 and related technologies. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing,26, 1–56. Scholar
  90. Paek, B., & Lee, H. (2017). Strategic entrepreneurship and competitive advantage of established firms: Evidence from the digital TV industry. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal. Scholar
  91. Paelke, V. (2014). Augmented reality in the smart factory: Supporting workers in an industry 4.0. environment. In 19th IEEE international conference on emerging technologies and factory automation.
  92. Panetti, E., Parmentola, A., Ferretti, M., & Reynolds, E. B. (2019). Exploring the relational dimension in a smart innovation ecosystem: A comprehensive framework to define the network structure and the network portfolio. The Journal of Technology Transfer. Scholar
  93. Paper, W., Papers, E. D., Papers, E. D., Hsieh, T. Y., Dedhia, R., Cervenka, B., et al. (2017). Preparing young people for the future of work. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management,9(1), 5–6. Scholar
  94. Park, H. S. (2017a). Technology convergence, open innovation, and dynamic economy. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity,3(1), 24. Scholar
  95. Park, S. C. (2017b). The Fourth Industrial Revolution and implications for innovative cluster policies. AI & SOCIETY. Scholar
  96. Park, S. C. (2018). The Fourth Industrial Revolution and implications for innovative cluster policies. AI & SOCIETY,33(3), 433–445. Scholar
  97. Peeters, H., Callaert, J., & Van Looy, B. (2018). Do firms profit from involving academics when developing technology? Journal of Technology Transfer. Scholar
  98. Peris-Ortiz, M., Gómez, J. A., Merigó-Lindahl, J. M., & Rueda-Armengot, C. (2017). Innovation, technology and knowledge management. Entrepreneurial Universities - Exploring the Academic and Innovative Dimensions of Entrepreneurship in Higher Education. Scholar
  99. Plummer, M., De Martel, C., Vignat, J., Ferlay, J., Bray, F., & Franceschi, S. (2016). Global burden of cancers attributable to infections in 2012: A synthetic analysis. The Lancet Global Health,4(9), e609–e616. Scholar
  100. PwC. (2016). Industry 4.0: Building the digital enterprise. Scholar
  101. Qin, J., Liu, Y., & Grosvenor, R. (2016). A categorical framework of manufacturing for Industry 4.0 and beyond. Procedia CIRP,52(2016), 173–178. Scholar
  102. Quinlan, A. E., Berbés-Blázquez, M., Haider, L. J., & Peterson, G. D. (2016). Measuring and assessing resilience: Broadening understanding through multiple disciplinary perspectives. Journal of Applied Ecology,53(3), 677–687. Scholar
  103. Ranga, M., Temel, S., Ar, I. M., & Yesilay, R. B. (2016). Building technology transfer capacity in Turkish universities: A critical analysis. European Journal of Education. Scholar
  104. Rasmussen, E., Mosey, S., & Wright, M. (2011). The evolution of entrepreneurial competencies: A longitudinal study of university spin-off venture emergence. Journal of Management Studies,48(6), 1314–1345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rasmussen, E., Mosey, S., & Wright, M. (2014). The influence of university departments on the evolution of entrepreneurial competencies in spin-off ventures. Research Policy,43(1), 92–106. Scholar
  106. Roco, M. C., & Bainbridge, W. S. (2013). The new world of discovery, invention, and innovation: Convergence of knowledge, technology, and society. Journal of Nanoparticle Research. Scholar
  107. Sá, C., & Lee, H. (2012). Science, business, and innovation: Understanding networks in technology-based incubators. R&D Management,42(3), 243–253. Scholar
  108. Sandberg, E. (2018). Challenges to African entrepreneurship in the twenty-first century. London: Palgrave Macmillian. Scholar
  109. Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2009). Research methods for business students (5th ed.). Edinburgh: Pearson. Scholar
  110. Schelfhout, W., Bruggeman, K., & De Mayer, S. (2016). Evaluation of entrepreneurial competence through scaled behavioural indicators: Validation of an instrument. Studies in Educational Evaluation,51, 29–41. Scholar
  111. Schmitz, A., Urbano, D., Dandolini, G. A., De Souza, J. A., & Guerrero, M. (2017). Innovation and entrepreneurship in the academic setting: A systematic literature review. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal,13(2), 369–395. Scholar
  112. Schwab, K. (2017). The Fourth Industrial Revolution. New York, NY: Crown Publishing.Google Scholar
  113. Seo-Zindy, R., & Heeks, R. (2017). Researching the emergence of 3D printing, makerspaces, hackerspaces and fablabs in the global south: A scoping review and research agenda on digital innovation and fabrication networks. Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries,80(1), 1–24. Scholar
  114. Serpanos, D. (2018). The cyber-physical systems revolution. Computer,51(3), 70–73. Scholar
  115. Sharif, N., & Baark, E. (2008). Mobilizing technology transfer from university to industry. Journal of Technology Management in China,3(1), 47–65. Scholar
  116. Smith, K. R. (2006). Building an innovation ecosystem. Industry and Higher Education,20(4), 219–224. Scholar
  117. Statista. (2018). Number of Netflix employees from 2015 to 2018. Retrieved June 24, 2019 from
  118. Statistics South Africa. (2019). Stats SA. Retrieved October 28, 2018 from
  119. Steenhuis, H. J., & Pretorius, L. (2017). The additive manufacturing innovation: A range of implications. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management,28(1), 122–143. Scholar
  120. Steyn, R. (2018). Changing thoughts towards digital literacy interventions for South African entrepreneurs. Reading and Writing. Scholar
  121. Steyn, R., De Villiers, C., & Twinomurinzi, H. (2018). Creating an ICT skills enhancement environment for entrepreneurs. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology,537, 60–81. Scholar
  122. Steyn, A., & Leonard, A. (2012). Guidance for SMEs with the adoption of technology: A conceptual framework. The South African Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management,5, 24–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Takalo, T., & Tanayama, T. (2010). Adverse selection and financing of innovation: Is there a need for R&D subsidies? The Journal of Technology Transfer,35(1), 16–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Talukder, M., Quazi, A., & Djatikusumo, D. (2013). Impact of social influence on individuals’ adoption of social networks in SMEs. Journal of Computer Science,9(12), 1686–1694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Tamásy, C. (2007). Rethinking technology-oriented business incubators: Developing a robust policy instrument for entrepreneurship, innovation, and regional development? Growth and Change,38, 460–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Taylor, B. (2018). To see the future of competition, look at Netflix. Harvard Business Review, 1. Retrieved January 6, 2018 from
  127. Taylor, T. J., & Hartwig, C. (2018). Cool roof use in commercial buildings in the United States: An energy cost analysis. ASHRAE Transactions,124(3), 88–96. Scholar
  128. Thomas, B., Packham, G., Miller, C., & Brooksbank, D. (2004). The use of web sites for SME innovation and technology support services in Wales. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development,11(3), 400–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. University of Pretoria. (2015). TTO News. Issue 1. Pretoria: University of Pretoria.Google Scholar
  130. Urban, B., & Chantson, J. (2017). Academic entrepreneurship in South Africa: Testing for entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Technology Transfer,44(3), 1–33. Scholar
  131. Van Stijn, N., Van Rijnsoever, F. J., & Van Veelen, M. (2018). Exploring the motives and practices of university-start-up interaction: Evidence from Route 128. Journal of Technology Transfer,43(3), 674–713. Scholar
  132. Vanhaverbeke, W., Van de Vrande, V., & Chesbrough, H. (2008). Understanding the advantages of open innovation practices in corporate venturing in terms of real options. Creativity and Innovation Management,17(4), 251–258. Scholar
  133. Vendrell-Herrero, F., González-Pernía, J. L., & Peña-Legazkue, I. (2014). Do incentives matter to promote high technology-driven entrepreneurial activity? International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal,10(1), 43–66. Scholar
  134. Verbano, C., & Venturini, K. (2012). Technology transfer in the Italian space industry: Organizational issues and determinants. Management Research Review,35(3–4), 272–288. Scholar
  135. Vohora, A., Wright, M., & Lockett, A. (2004). Critical junctures in the development of university high-tech spinout companies. Research Policy,33, 147–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Wang, S., Wan, J., Zhang, D., Li, D., & Zhang, C. (2016). Towards smart factory for industry 4.0: A self-organized multi-agent system with big data based feedback and coordination. Computer Networks,101, 158–168. Scholar
  137. Wonglimpiyarat, J. (2014). Incubator policy to support entrepreneurial development, technology transfer and commercialization. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development,10(4), 334–351. Scholar
  138. Worku, Z. (2015). The South African labour market and the incubation of small businesses in South Africa. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development,7(1), 58–70. Scholar
  139. World Bank. (2016). World development report 2016: Digital dividends (Vol. 65). Washington, DC: World Bank. Scholar
  140. World Economic Forum. (2017). The Africa competitiveness report 2017. Retrieved November 30, 2018 from
  141. World Economic Forum. (2018a). Internet of Things: Guidelines for sustainability. Retrieved January 4, 2018 from
  142. World Economic Forum. (2018b) The future of jobs report, Executive Summary (Vol. 5). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Wortmann, F., & Flüchter, K. (2015). Internet of Things: Technology and value added. Business and Information Systems Engineering,57(3), 221–224. Scholar
  144. Wright, M. (2014). Academic entrepreneurship, technology transfer and society: Where next? Journal of Technology Transfer,39(3), 322–334. Scholar
  145. Wyness, L., Jones, P., & Klapper, R. (2015). Sustainability: What the entrepreneurship educators think. Education and Training,57(8–9), 834–852. Scholar
  146. Xing, B., & Marwala, T. (2017). Implications of the Fourth Industrial Age on higher education. arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.09643.
  147. Xu, M., David, J. M., & Kim, S. H. (2018). The Fourth Industrial Revolution: Opportunities and challenges. International Journal of Financial Research,9(2), 90. Scholar
  148. Yin, R. K. (2018). Case study research and applications: Design and methods. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research. Scholar
  149. Zahara, S., & Wright, M. (2011). Entrepreneurship’s next act. Academy of Management Perspectives,25, 67–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Zahra, S. A., Sapienza, H. J., & Davidsson, P. (2006). Entrepreneurship and dynamic capabilities: A review, model and research agenda. Journal of Management Studies,43(4), 0022–2380. Scholar
  151. Zhong, R. Y., Xu, X., Klotz, E., & Newman, S. T. (2017). Intelligent manufacturing in the context of Industry 4.0: A review. Engineering,3(5), 616–630. Scholar
  152. Zikmund, W., Babin, B., Carr, J., & Griffin, M. (2010). Business research methods (8th ed.). Boston: Cengage Learning.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations