Advertisement

The Journal of Technology Transfer

, Volume 44, Issue 5, pp 1367–1395 | Cite as

University technology transfer efficiency in a factor driven economy: the need for a coherent policy in Egypt

  • David A. KirbyEmail author
  • Hala H. El Hadidi
Article
  • 83 Downloads

Abstract

The article examines the effectiveness of instruments to promote technology transfer and foster entrepreneurial innovation in Egypt where there are individual measures but no comprehensive, unified policy or strategy to promote the transfer and commercialisation of the intellectual property stemming from university research. The study examines the extent of technology transfer in the country and the effectiveness of the various existing measures through a four-phase investigation involving in-depth interviews with experts, a questionnaire survey of 400 Egyptian Science, Engineering and Technology academics, three case studies of Technology Transfer Offices and a 237 respondent industry survey. The results indicate that despite the measures that have been introduced, there is little university–industry collaboration and that the interventions are of limited effectiveness. The article concludes that there is a need for a broad, national co-ordinating policy that encourages universities and industry to collaborate, particularly on research, and to engage in the transference and commercialisation of technology.

Keywords

Technology transfer Efficiency Factor-driven economy Egypt National policy 

JEL Classifications

D04 D02 E61 I23 I25 I28 L32 L53 L88 O25 O38 

Notes

Funding

The research was part-funded under the 2013 Emerald/EFMD MENA Management Research Fund Award.

References

  1. Abu-Orabi, S.T. (2016). Higher education and scientific research in the Arab World. Paper presented at the 15th IAU general conference, November 13–16. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University.Google Scholar
  2. Alshumaimri, A., Aldridge, T., & Audretsch, D. B. (2010). The university technology transfer revolution in Saudi Arabia. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 35, 585–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashby, W. R. (1968). Variety, constraunt, and the law of requisite variety. In W. Buckley (Ed.), Modern systems research for the behavioral scientist. Chicago IL: Aldine Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  4. Avanitis, S., Kubli, U., & Woerter, M. (2008). University–industry knowledge and technology transfer in Switzerland: What university scientists think about co-operation with private enterprises. Research Policy, 37(10), 1865–1883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bercovitz, J., & Feldmann, M. (2006). Entrepreneurial universities and technology transfer: A conceptual framework for understanding knowledge-based economic development. Journal of Technology Transfer, 31, 175–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boehm, S. N., & Hogan, T. (2014). ‘A jack of all trades’: The role of PIs in the establishment and management of collaborative networks in scientific knowledge commercialization. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 39(1), 134–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bozeman, B. (2000). Technology Transfer and public policy: A review of research and theory. Research Policy, 29, 627–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bruneel, J., D’Este, P., & Salter, A. (2010). Investigating the factors that diminish the barriers to university–industry collaboration. Research Policy, 39(7), 858–868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chukumba, C., & Jensen, R. (2005). University invention, entrepreneurship and startups. NBER working paper series 11475, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  10. Clark, B. R. (1998). Creating entrepreneurial universities: Organisational pathways of transformation. Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  11. D’Este, P. D., & Patel, P. (2007). University–industry linkages in the UK: What are the factors underlying the variety of interactions with industry? Research Policy, 36(9), 1295–1313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. De Lourdes Machado, M., Farhangmehr, M., & Stover Taylor, J. (2004). The status of strategic planning in Portuguese higher education institutions: Trappings or substance. Higher Education Policy, 17(4), 383–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Debackere, K., & Veugelers, R. (2005). The role of academic technology transfer organizations in improving industry science links. Research Policy, 34(3), 321–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. El Hadidi, H., & Kirby, D. A. (2015a). Universities and innovation in a factor-driven economy: The Egyptian case. Industry and Higher Education, 29(2), 151–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. El Hadidi, H., & Kirby, D. A. (2015b). The attitude of Egyptian SET academics towards innovation: Universities and innovation in a factor-driven economy. Industry and Higher Education, 29(4), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. El Hadidi, H., & Kirby, D. A. (2016). Universities and innovation in a factor-driven economy: The performance of universities in Egypt. Industry and Higher Education, 30(2), 140–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. El Hadidi, H., & Kirby, D. A. (2017). University–industry collaboration in a factor-driven economy: The perspective of Egyptian industry. Industry and Higher Education, 31(3), 195–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Etzkowitz, H. (2003). Innovation in innovation: The triple helix of university–industry–government relations. Social Science Information, 42(2), 151–160.Google Scholar
  19. Etzkowitz, H. (2008). The triple helix: University–industry–government innovation in action. Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Etzkowitz, H. (2014). The entrepreneurial university wave: From ivory tower to global economic engine. Industry and Higher Education, 28(4), 223–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fontana, R., Guena, A., & Matt, M. (2006). Factors affecting university–industry R&D projects: The importance of searching, screening and signalling. Research Policy, 35(2), 309–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Friedman, J., & Silberman, J. (2003). University, technology transfer: Do incentives, management and location matter? The Journal of Technology Transfer, 28(1), 17–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Galan-Muros, V., Van der Sijde, P., Groenewegen, P., & Baaken, T. (2017). Nurture over nature: How do European universities support their collaboration with business? The Journal of Technology Transfer, 42(1), 184–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gonzalez-Pernia, J. L., Kuechie, G., & Pena-Legazkue, I. (2013). An assessment of the determinants of university technology transfer. Economic Development Quarterly, 27(1), 6–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Henry, C. (2013). Entrepreneurship Education in HE: Are policy makers expecting too much? Education + Training, 55(8/9), 836–848.Google Scholar
  26. Herman, C. (2013). Industry perceptions of industry–university partnerships related to doctoral education in South Africa. Industry and Higher Education, 27(3), 214–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hewitt-Dundas, N. (2012). Research intensity and knowledge transfer activity in UK universities. Research Policy, 41(2), 262–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ismail, A., Tolba, A., Barakat, S., & Meshreki, H. (2018). Global entrepreneurship monitor: Egypt National Report, 2017-2018. Cairo: American University in Cairo.Google Scholar
  29. Jensen, R., & Thursby, M. C. (2001). Proofs and prototypes for sale: The licensing of university inventions. American Economic Review, 91, 240–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kirby, D. A. (2006). Creating Entrepreneurial universities in the UK: Applying entrepreneurial theory to practice. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 31, 599–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kirby, D. A. (2007). The contextual stepwise approach to enterprise research and the use of undisguised stories and focus groups. In D. Hine & D. Carson (Eds.), Innovative methodologies in enterprise research. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  32. Kirby, D. A., & Ibrahim, N. (2016). Entrepeneurial universities in Egypt: Opportunities and challenges. In N. Rizk & H. Azzazy (Eds.), Entrepreneurship + Innovation in Egypt. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press.Google Scholar
  33. Link, A. N. (2002). From seed to harvest: The growth of the research Triangle Park. Research Triangle Foundation of North Carolina.Google Scholar
  34. Link, A. N. (2015). Capturing knowledge: Private gains and public gains from university research partnerships. Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship, 11(3), 139–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Markman, G. D., Glaniodis, P. T., Phan, P. H., & Balkin, D. B. (2005a). Innovation speed: Transferring university technology to market. Research Policy, 34(7), 1058–1075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Markman, G. D., Phan, P. H., Balkin, D. B., & Glaniodis, P. T. (2005b). Entrepreneurship and university-based technology transfer. Journal of Business Venturing, 20(2), 241–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mock, K. H. (2005). Fostering entrepreneurship: Changing role of government and higher education governance in Hong Kong. Research Policy, 34(4), 537–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Muscio, A., Quaglione, D., & Vallanti, G. (2014). University regulation and university–industry interaction: A performance analysis of Italian academic departments. Industrial and Corporate Change, 24(5), 1047–1079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Naghizadeh, R., Elahi, S., Manteghi, M., Ghazinoory, S., & Ranga, M. (2015). Through the magnifying glass: An analysis of regional innovation models based on co-word and meta-synthesis methods. Quality & Quantity, 49(6), 2481–2505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Perkmann, M., Tartari, V., McKelvey, M., Autio, E., Brostrom, A., D’Este, P., et al. (2013). Academic engagement and commercialisation: A review of the literature on university–industry relations. Research Policy, 42(2), 423–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Phan, P. H., & Siegal, D. S. (2006). The effectiveness of university technology transfer. Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship, 2(2), 77–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ranga, M., & Etzkowitz, H. (2013). Triple helix systems: An analytical framework for innovation policy and practice in the Knowledge Society. Industry and Higher Education, 27(4), 237–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rasmussen, E., & Rice, M. P. (2012). A framework for government support mechanisms aimed at enhancing university technology transfer: The Norwegian case. International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation, 11(1/2), 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Reda, M. (2012). Enhancing Egypt’s competitiveness: Education, innovation and labor. Cairo: Egyptian Centre for Economic Studies.Google Scholar
  45. Science and Technology Development Fund. (2012). Egypt’s innovation ecosystem. Cairo: Innovation Support Department, Science and Technology Development Fund.Google Scholar
  46. Siegel, D. S., Waldman, D. A., Atwater, L. E., & Link, A. (2003a). Commercial knowledge transfers from universities to firms: Improving the effectiveness of university–industry collaboration. Journal of High Technology Management Research, 14(1), 11–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Siegel, D. S., Waldman, D. A., Atwater, L. E., & Link, A. (2004). Toward a model of the effective transfer of scientific knowledge from academicians to practitioners: Qualitative evidence from the commercialization of university technologies. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 21(1–2), 115–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Siegel, D. S., Waldman, D., & Link, A. (2003b). Assessing the impact of organizational practices on the relative productivity of university technology transfer offices: An exploratory study. Research Policy, 32, 27–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Silverman, E. (2007, January 1). The trouble with tech transfer. The Scientist.Google Scholar
  50. Sturgeon, T. J. (2000). How Silicon Valley came to be. In M. Kenney (Ed.), Understanding silicon valley: The anatomy of an entrepreneurial region (pp. 15–47). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Vinig, T., & Lips, D. (2015). Measuring the performance of university technology transfer using meta data approach: The case of Dutch universities. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 40(6), 1034–1049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The British University in EgyptCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Business AdministrationThe British University in EgyptCairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations